Unix for mac os x users pdf
Feel free to customize both variables to suit your needs. To make sure the right version of rsync is used, I hard coded the path of rsync in the script. After running it you should expect to have an exact replica of the specified folders on your external drive. In UNIX many chores involving processes require that you know the pid process ID of the targeting processes before you can do anything with them.
Here is a simple script you can use to find out the pid of a process by its name:. Then use it like this assuming you're in the same directory as that of pidof :. For some reason sometimes the database maintained by LaunchServices is out of synch with "reality" what apps are or are not on your hard drive. Fortunately you can force it to rebuild the database by running the following command:. Running lsregister with no argument will tell you what those options are for. From time to time my Cisco VPN client just gives me crap like "cannot load kernel extension" or "cannot find a valid IP address" etc although my connection is perfectly fine.
In this case try the following in Terminal. Unfortunately the graphical apps do not get their paths from those settings. This document at Apple will tell you the details. This creates a compressed. This assumes you know the ID of the process you want to watch if you don't, see this tip. A simple line below will give you the answer:. If the process is still alive, you'll get the process ID back. Otherwise nothing will be printed. This is useful in building a larger script where monitoring a process is necessary.
This tip is actually a simple script written in Python - a powerful scripting language shipped with Mac OS X. The script allows you to send an email to multiple people on the command-line. This would be useful, for example, in sending a periodic reminder to a bunch of people with the help of the system scheduler, cron. Note this tip is useful not only for Panther users, but also for the users of the other platforms that Python supports e. First, you need to create the following script: copy and paste the content below into a file, say, smtp. For example, here is the command I used to send out the weekly reminder for playing basketball:.
A note about the sender argument: it has to be an email address from a valid domain so the line above won't work - it's deliberately garbled , but other than that, there's no safety net to prevent you from impersonating others - BUT DON'T.
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Ever want to remove all those hidden. You can do this:. Or a faster version thanks to Sean Kelly - the version above does show you how to do artitrary things to the files though :. This is useful in two ways: 1 it saves you one trip to reach the mouse in order to open some file; 2 it could force some app to open a file that is usually not associated to the app. There are 3 possible forms:.
The first form opens a file with the default associated app; the second form opens a file with the specified app; and the last one opens a file with TextEdit. This tip is from here. Type this in the terminal:. The next time you start Terminal. By the way, the defaults command actually writes to an app's preference file. This could be quite annoying if you don't want that. Fortunately the fix is very simple.
Just create your own.
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So you no longer need to use Netinfo. This is another Netinfo-related tip. But OS X does things a little differently. To do that you need to fire up Netinfo. The rest should be obvious. Thanks to Robin Breathe It turns out you can also achieve this by simply using the command-line utility chsh.
Other nifty things are possible using chsh - again, " man chsh " for more. This works both to a command-line or a GUI process. Here you go: the first thing you need to do is to figure out the pid of the process you want to suspend: see this tip. After determining the pid say it's , I use the following command to suspend that process:.
Of course, do replace the pid with yours when you do this. They typically involve maintaining an exact duplicate of a volume on external storage as a disk image a file that can be mounted to appear as a disk in the Finder. Such tools typically rely on commands like rsync or ditto "under the covers. If you are used to rsync, there is also RsyncX providing a GUI front end to rsync, with metadata support.
You will double-click the.
The contents will include the. It will walk you through the installation dialog; you may be prompted for the admin password. Only a modest amount of Unix software has been packaged for i-Installer , but among this collection are some important tools for scientific users that aren't easily available in any other way. Each project hosts a slew of open source Unix software, with each installation process tailored if necessary to OS X. They can install binary packages when available , or install software from source.
Both projects provide both command-line and GUI-based package installation tools. Unfortunately, the transition has made its main web site confusingly uninformative. Your best entry point isn't MacPorts. Niether directory normally exists in OS X, thus the packages each package manager installs are encapsulated. If you use either, you'll need to modify your command search PATH appropriately recent installers may offer to adjust it automatically for you. The plus side of this encapsulation mechanism is that you can use either package with no worry of writing over Apple-installed software.
The down side is that you are essentially maintaining "parallel" operating systems, creating the possibility of unintended name collisions. Users are split in their opinions of these tools. If you use a lot of open source software and thus must manage many dependencies , or if you are averse to the "configure - make - sudo make install" process for installing from source, you'll find one of these package managers essential.
However, the fact that they install "parallel" environments can cause problems, e. For example, you may think you are executing one version of gcc, only to discover incompatibilities because Fink installed its own gcc. You may think you are linking against a version of libpng you installed, only to run into incompatibilities because Fink installed a different version that is earlier in your library search path.
Or you may have installed g77, and find problems with your Fortran software because its Makefile first locates f77, which you didn't realize Fink installed. I use Fink as an example only because that's the one I tried.
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That said, many users swear by these package managers. Use them if they appeal to you—they are especially helpful for installing large packages like xemacs or GTK—but keep the potential for conflicts in the back of your mind. It runs your default shell in a configurable window, with full integration with OS X i.
Apple's X11 application launches an X11 server that runs in the background; by default it also launches an xterm running your default shell. It is not as fully integrated with OS X as a Terminal window. Unix programs often send error and other messages to the system console. Note that Console provides a read-only console, not a shell.
Use its File menu to select among various console logs you can view. I have yet to find a completely clear description of the situation; here I provide my current understanding.
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If you just want to know what to do without having to understand why, skip to the end of this section for sample. When you start a shell, it reads certain startup files for initialization, e. Shells can serve different purposes; a shell launched in a terminal will be used interactively, but one launched for a script or by a Unix command will be non-interactive.
Different uses require different initialization. For example, a non-interactive shell launched for a script or by a system command should typically inherit many settings from its parent shell. If it used the parent shell's startup file, it would waste time duplicating many inherited default environment settings; worse, it might override settings that were altered interactively in the parent shell. For this reason, shell invocations look in different startup files for initialization information, depending on how they were launched.
I'll discuss the situation for bash here, as that is the current OS X default shell. For bash, interactive login shells, and non-interactive shells started with the "--login" option, read a ". The "login" property means these shells should be started "from scratch," defining everything the user expects in a brand new shell. Interactive shells that are not login shells , and standard non-interactive shells, instead initialize from a ". These shells are usually launched from within another shell, and inherit that shell's environment settings.
Thus the roles for the two startup files are as follows:.
[PDF] A Practical Guide to UNIX for Mac OS X Users [Read] Full Ebook
A quirk of the way most Unix window managers work lets Unix users be a bit lazy about startup files, so placing all initialization in. Unix window managers are based on X Logging in starts a root X11 server that handles all windowing, and a root xterm that opens a login shell, which reads. Every xterm you subsequently open runs via that root X11 server, and it starts an interactive non-login shell that inherits the login shell environment this non-login startup is xterm's default behavior.
These non-login xterms are all the xterms that you actually see. As a result, most Unix bash users put all their initialization material in a ". OS X does not run an X11 server by default. There is no login xterm running by default. The Terminal application opens an interactive login shell in each of its windows. Thus Terminal shells all start "from scratch" and read ".
Recall that by default xterm launches a non-login interactive shell presumably because it was designed to run in a root server environment. This shell reads ". How can we get Terminal and xterm shells to share initializations? A quick-and-dirty approach is to maintain identical.
But a better approach is to 1 treat the. Here's how. First, separate your initialization material properly between. Finally, to get the X11 default xterm to start a shell "from scratch" and read.
To customize X11 , launch it, and in its Applications menu choose the "Customize Menu Edit the Terminal command to be "xterm -ls" rather than just "xterm". That's it! If you'd rather change your X11 defaults, edit the. LoginShell: True That will cause all xterms to launch a login shell by default.
Probably the most useful such command is "open" which opens a file, directory, or URL as if you opened it via the Finder. Apple's commands are documented with man pages, so you can learn about "open" via "man open". Briefly, if filepath is the path to a file with respect to the current working directory , "open filepath " will open it with its default application, and "open -a AppName filepath " will open it with the specified application. If folderpath is the path to a folder, "open folderpath " will open that folder in the Finder; it works with ".
Printing OS X applications provide simple print commands in their File menus. You can often do whatever printer management you need to do via the "Print If you need help with printer setup, click the "? You may sometimes need to print files from the command line.
A special case worth mentioning is printing to printers connected via AppleTalk, Apple's Mac-specific networking protocol, which can communicate to printers and to other Macs both via ethernet or via older Apple serial interfaces. Application printing treats AppleTalk printers no differently than other printers, but the command line distinguishes them. Use "atprint" to transfer data to an AppleTalk printer from the command line. It sends data from stdin, so it will typically be used in a pipe or with redirection. For example, to print a postscript file "file.
For more information, see the atprint man page. You may need to install the Developer Tools aka Xcode to get them see below. Apple ships a basic command-line version of Python that lags a bit behind the current one; it is also not a framework build as of OS Python offers integration with Apple's own AppleScript scripting language via the 3rd-party Appscript package. Search for and install it if you'd like to script OS X applications with Python. It isn't necessary if you are just doing standard Unix scripting. It was designed to be easy for non-programmers to use. As a consequence its syntax is closer to natural language than more familiar computer languages.
Experienced programmers will likely find it frustratingly verbose kind of like the bastard child of a union between the shell and COBOL! Even those that do not can often be at least partially scripted via AppleScript access to their GUIs. You won't need to learn any AppleScript to do normal Unix scripting.
However, you may find a few AppleScripts handy to use to facilitate Unix command line use in the OS X environment you don't need to know a thing about the language to use AppleScripts. For example, you will probably often want to open a shell in a directory corresponding to a location you've navigated to in the Finder. Of course, you can open a Terminal window and navigate to the location from your home directory via "cd". But with AppleScript, you can tell the Finder to launch Terminal and automatically "cd" to the folder currently selected in the Finder. Here is an archive OpenTermsScripts.
There are two convenient ways you can invoke them. You can drag a script to the sidebar of a Finder window the lower left area, where the icon for your home directory appears ; it will then always appear in every Finder window, where clicking it will open a Terminal or iTerm window in the currently selected folder. Alternately, the Finder can maintain a script menu in the menu bar, providing you access to any scripts you've placed in your Scripts folder.
By the way, the Script Editor application in this folder is what you use to write your own AppleScripts. You can use it to examine the Terminal and iTerm AppleScripts. To run a script, just click on the script icon in the menu bar, and select the script you want to run. You'll see that the menu provides access to dozens of scripts that Apple provides, besides whatever scripts you've placed in your Scripts folder. If you come across a simple task that you suspect could be easily scripted with AppleScript, you may not have to learn AppleScript to accomplish it.
Apple provides an application called Automator in Applications that lets you construct script-like actions by dragging and dropping basic steps in a workflow. A Google search will lead you to Automator tutorials. Also, a number of web sites collect useful AppleScripts that you can freely download. Partition your hard drive Your Mac comes with its hard drive formatted as a single partition.
This is most likely fine for most users. But if you think you may want to use multiple partitions, now is the time to plan your hard drive organization. OS X's Disk Utility application mentioned above, in Background: System maintenance is the tool to use to partition your hard drive. But it does not support "live" altering of partitions; you'll have to reinstall everything on your hard drive if you use Disk Utility to repartition it.
There are 3rd-party tools available that support live partition adjustments, but even those tools recommend backing up all your drive contents before altering a partition. To save yourself extra work, you might as well think hard about partitions now, before you start filling your hard drive with software and documents. Just as examples, here are three ideas for additional partitions besides your default OS X system partition to consider. A Google search for "'OS X' partitions" will turn up other ideas for partitioning.
With a desktop machine, you're likely to have your system installation media handy; you can boot from the OS X install disk and run Disk Utility from it to do any needed repairs. With laptops, you may not have your installation disc handy. If you have lots of spare disk space, consider setting aside a few gigabytes for a "bare bones" OS X installation that you can boot from in the off chance you'll need to repair you main drive. Such a partition might also be handy if you need to test installations of software you are developing into a "clean" environment.
Even on my desktop Mac, I maintain such a partition on a second hard drive. Ideally you would put such media in a separate drive from your system drive, so your authoring application isn't competing for disk access resources with the media itself. Even if you are not authoring media, but expect to compile a large media library of music, photos, or video , consider devoting a partition to these files to simplify your backup routine. If you use Apple's software to access and organize your media iTunes, iPhoto, etc. This insures that I won't mess with the OS X directories in the course of my day-to-day work, and it also simplifies my backup routine: I just have to maintain a clone of the whole Projects volume I back up my home directory and the OS X system directory less frequently.
If you do repartition your Mac, you'll have to re-install OS X on it. Your Mac should have come with instructions for this. Briefly: boot from your install disc put the disk in your optical drive, turn on your Mac, and hold down the "C" key ; the installer will lead you through the straightforward installation process. Run Software Update from the Apple menu to check for any pending updates; install any you need for example, you might ignore iPod-related updates if you don't use an iPod. See the System Maintenance section, above, for more info on Software Update.
If an application named X11 is not there, use your system install media to install it you will have to click the "Customize" button during the install process to get the menu allowing you to select X For very early versions of OS X, you may need to obtain the compatible Apple's X11 as a separate download if it was not included on your install media.
It includes standard Unix development tools like gcc and gdb, many libraries, as well as numerous sophisticated OS X-specific development tools. It lacks a Fortran compiler, however. To get gcc and other such tools, you must install Xcode. Your Mac may have come with an Xcode install disc. You should probably ignore it. It is likely that Apple has updated the tools since your disc was pressed, and you'll want to download the latest version of the tools. Once you've registered, log in and go to the Downloads section.
Download the most recent Xcode disk image. It will be about a gigabyte in size, so you must do this with a fast connection. Once downloaded, just double-click the downloaded disk image to mount it, double-click on the included package to start Installer , and follow the usual install dialog to install the tools.
For information on using these libraries, see Taking advantage of the Accelerate framework. A good source of community support for library usage is the Forums section of MacResearch. The Unix tools will be installed in the usual paths e. If you are not developing OS X applications, you may safely ignore these applications. However, three of them are worth knowing about even if you are sticking to Unix-style command-line development. If you anticipate you will be making use of Apple's Xcode applications for your Unix development, or especially if you anticipate doing OS X application development yourself, you should also download the latest version of the ADC Reference Library, which will provide a gigabyte of HTML developer documentation on your hard drive.
You can also separately download a collection of the documentation as PDF files. Xcode Xcode is the heart of the Xcode tool suite. It is the default application for opening many source code files, including. You may want to use another text editor for your coding, especially if you will be moving between multiple platforms; but if you are coding predominantly on Macs, consider learning to use Xcode , if only as a source code editor. FileMerge and opendiff Xcode includes a very nice graphical version of the Unix "diff" file difference tool, called FileMerge.
If you launch it, it will provide a window where you can drag-and-drop files; comparing them presents them side by side, with highlighting showing the differences. At the command line, the "opendiff" command takes files or directories as arguments, and launches FileMerge to compare them. It has a man page detailing its use. You can edit such lists directly with Property List Editor , and you may find it handy for other XML documents that have a similar structure. Kerberos Kerberos handles authentication for access to various Cornell online resources, most importantly library resources and benefits services.
You won't have to pay any special attention to it; it will be launched automatically as required. You will need to know your Cornell login info to use it. Norton Antivirus Macs suffer fewer virus attacks than other computers, but Mac viruses do exist, so it is wise to install Norton Antivirus. Note that it installs with a number of default settings that you may wish to adjust.
In particular, by default it will search removable media for viruses when the media is mounted. This can be time consuming and annoying. You can adjust this and other settings via Norton preference panes that get added to System Preferences; you can also access them from the Antivirus application itself.
Once a commercial application, it has just become open source. OS X includes a very capable and popular mail client called, imaginatively enough, Mail. It's in your Applications folder, but is also put in the Dock by default it has a postage stamp icon. You needn't install Eudora if you are happy with Mail or if you handle your email on another computer or via the web.
Comparisons are subjective, but a common point of comparison between Mail and Eudora is that Eudora has exceptionally fast search capabilities, so some users with particularly voluminous email favor it. If you are happy using sftp and ssh from a shell prompt, you needn't bother with Fetch and dataComet. Firefox Bear Access includes an installer for the Gecko-based Firefox web browser.
It may not be the most recent version, so you are probably better off getting the latest installer from Mozilla. See the 3rd-party software section, below, for more information about OS X web browsers. Fortran compilers and scientific computing tools As noted above, Xcode does not include a Fortran compiler. At least two free Fortran compilers are available for OS X g77 and gfortran ; commercial Fortran compilers are also available.
Note that, as of OS It is important to be aware of the version you are using if you are using a free gnu-compatible Fortran compiler. Intel-based Macs can only run code built with gcc4, so if you need a free compiler for an Intel Mac, use gfortran, not g In general, gcc3 is used for OS Intel provides highly regarded commercial optimizing compilers for Intel Macs.
They offer both a "Standard" version a "Professional" version that adds an optimized math kernel. Here I will just offer a quick set of pointers. You will most likely want to install a command-line version of the teTeX package, the standard TeX package available in most Unix environments. If you are using MacPorts or Fink, you can install it via their package managers. Alternatively, you can use i-Installer to install TeX Live—a teTeX superset—in the usual locations you'd find it in a Unix environment.
You may still want to use i-Installer directly to get a few tools and libraries, e. TeX is big; to install it you'll need a fast internet connection. You'll be presented with a window whose main pane will list many packages you may download and install. An install window will open; click on "Install and configure" and then choose "Simple install.
While you are in i-Installer, you very likely should install other tools you rely on for TeX use under Unix. Top contenders are Ghostscript 8, and Ghostview for X11R6 the gv command, which you'll have to run from an xterm ; ImageMagik and XFig can also be handy for generating and manipulating graphics for your TeX documents. Don't go crazy—some of the listed libraries are in fact already in OS Other TeX-based authoring environments are described in the documents listed above. If you are happy working exclusively within a terminal window, emacs or vim may suite you fine.
But you may want something more integrated into OS X, e. In , the company withdrew from the Taligent partnership and PowerOpen was discontinued. In , it discontinued its two-year Copland project which had been intended to become Mac OS 8 and to host Taligent software. The review found the system speed "acceptable but not great" even on the fastest Quadra , blaming not the software but the incomplete Unix optimization found in Apple's hardware.
Though "a very good value", the system's price-performance ratio was judged as altogether uncompetitive against Sun's SPARCstation 2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Software portal Apple portal. Retrieved June 19, The Open Group. Retrieved October 1, August 15, Retrieved October 3,