Open a port on mac
Are you running any application which is listening on port ? Even if the port is not blocked by pf , it will still show as closed if no-one has opened it. Nothing will happen, and you won't get a prompt back, because netcat is just Then, in another terminal, run your. Sign up to join this community.
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How to Use the Port Scanner in Mac OS X Network Utility
The local ports tree is a collection of files that contain information on which packages are available through MacPorts and how they can be installed. You should regularly update your ports tree to get access to updated versions of software and bug fixes. To do that, use selfupdate :. To see what's new after running selfupdate , you can use port outdated to generate a list of ports that have newer versions available. This can help in estimating the time required for sudo port upgrade outdated , even though this depends on further factors such as binary package availability and a port's build time.
Note that MacPorts will upgrade any dependencies of a port first before updating the port itself. So even if you request the update of a single port only, other ports may be upgraded first because they are in the dependency tree. Do not try to avoid this, as it will very likely lead to problems later on — the new version of the port you want to upgrade might require the newer dependency, or it might only have been upgraded at all to be rebuilt against the updated dependency, in which case avoiding the update of the dependency defeats the purpose of the reinstallation.
By default, upgrading ports in MacPorts does not remove the older versions. This is a safety measure to ensure you can go back to a working and tested version in case an update goes wrong. To save disk space, you should periodically uninstall any old versions you no longer need. Of course you could also select only a specific inactive port, but that requires to specify the exact version:. If you are only interested in the dependent ports that you actually have installed, you can use the quicker and more accurate dependents :.
MacPorts also has a recursive version of the dependents action called rdependents :. Finally, to find out which port you manually installed caused the automatic installation of a dependency, use the following expression:. After a while of using MacPorts, installing and uninstalling ports, packages that have been automatically installed as dependencies for other ports are left behind, even though they are no longer necessary. These leaves may be wanted, but are in most cases unneeded. You can uninstall all leaves using. Note that the uninstallation can cause new ports to become leaves.
To uninstall all leaves, you can use the rleaves pseudo-port instead. After installation, run it with. Well, before we come to the procedure of defining your requested ports, let's have a look at a typical scenario where you want to understand what is actually installed and what is on the other hand truly necessary for your system. Say checking leaves of your MacPorts installation gives this output:.
Now it is up to the user to decide what's needed and what is not. We've noticed pkgconfig is needed to build many ports, and while it is strictly not needed after installation, we'd like to keep it around to avoid installing it over and over again. Since they are all distributable, MacPorts will use pre-built binaries for their installation anyway, so re-installing them wouldn't take long anyway. We don't really know why the rest of the leaves were installed, so we're just going to remove them for now.
When you've step-by-step figured out which ports you want to keep on your system and have set them as requested, you'll have a list of unnecessary ports, which you can get rid of using. Note that uninstalling leaves may mark new ports as leaves, so you will have to repeat the process.
It allows you to interactively decide whether to keep or uninstall a port. Run it as. You should also periodically check the list of your requested ports and mark any ports you no longer need as unrequested using. Then check for new leaves to cut down the number of installed ports and the size of your MacPorts installation. MacPorts can pre-compile ports into binaries so applications need not be compiled when installing on a target system.
MacPorts supports two types of binaries: archives and packages. Binary archives can only be used on a target system running MacPorts. They allow MacPorts utilities to skip the build which is usually the phase that takes longest and begin installation after the destroot phase. Binary archives are automatically created whenever a port is installed, and can also be downloaded from a server.
MacPorts runs a buildbot infrastructure that creates prebuilt binary packages for all ports in MacPorts for the default installation prefix. Buildbots exist for systems later or equal to Snow Leopard. If a port builds successfully and its license and those of its dependencies allow binary redistribution, the archives are uploaded to packages. The archive file type is set in macports. The default format is tbz2 ; other options are: tar , tbz , tbz2 , tgz , tlz , txz , xar , zip , cpgz , and cpio. Binary packages are standalone binary installers that are precompiled; they do not require MacPorts on the target system.
As such, they are helpful in generating disk images or installers to be redistributed to users without relying on MacPorts for installation. Binary installers created with MacPorts are usually. MacPorts can also convert a. You can create binary packages using port as shown in the following examples. If you do that, your installer package conflicts with MacPorts on systems that do have MacPorts installed. Then use this custom MacPorts installation to build your package. Create a macOS. In most cases you probably want to package a port and all its library and runtime dependencies in a single package.
You can use a metapackage to do this. Create one using:. Just as with a single package, a metapackage can also be wrapped in a. A port is a distribution of software that can be compiled and installed using MacPorts. A Portfile describes all the required steps such as where to get the source code from upstream, which patches have to be applied and which other tools and commands are required to build the source code.
Each port consists of multiple files in a directory, usually within a category subdirectory of the root of a ports tree. The MacPorts Project distributes the main ports tree that is by default configured in all installations of MacPorts. This section serves as a reference for the directory structure of a single port and the layout of the files within.
The only required file in a port is the Portfile. Every port has a corresponding Portfile, but Portfiles do not completely define a port's installation behavior since MacPorts base has default port installation characteristics coded within it. Therefore Portfiles need only specify required options, though some ports may require non-default options. A common way for Portfiles to augment or override MacPorts base default installation phase characteristics is by using Portfile phase declaration s. Any statements not contained within a phase declaration, no matter where they are located in a Portfile, are said to be in the global section of the Portfile; therefore the global section need not be contiguous.
Likewise, to remove statements from the global section they must be placed within a phase declaration. The default installation phase behavior performed by the MacPorts base works fine for applications that use the standard configure , make , and make install steps, which conform to phases configure, build, and destroot respectively. See Example Portfiles below. For a detailed description of all port phases, see the Portfile Reference chapter. Here we list the individual Portfile components for an application that conforms to the standard configure , make , and make install steps of most open source application installs.
This should be the first line of a Portfile. It sets the correct editing options for vim and emacs. See Port Style for more information. Its use is optional and up to the port maintainer. A port may belong to more than one category, but the first primary category should match the directory name in the ports tree where the Portfile is to reside. A port's maintainers are the people who have agreed to take responsibility for keeping the port up-to-date. The maintainers keyword lists the maintainers' GitHub usernames or email addresses, preferably in the obfuscated form which hides them from spambots.
For more, see the full explanation of the maintainers keyword in the Global Keywords section of the Portfile Reference chapter. The checksums specified in a Portfile are checked with the fetched tarball for security. For the best security, use rmd and sha checksum types. Checksums should also include the target file's size.
Creating Custom Firewall Ports
To find the correct checksums for a port's distribution file, follow one of these examples:. In this section we begin by taking a look at a complete simple Portfile; then we see how to augment default phases by defining pre- and post- phases, how to override default phases , and finally how to eliminate port phases. To augment a port's installation phase, and not override it, you may use pre- and post- installation phases as shown in this example.
To override the automatic MacPorts installation phase processing, define your own installation phases as shown in this example. Because many software packages do not use configure , a keyword is provided to eliminate the configure phase. Another exception is the destroot phase may not be eliminated. See the chapter Portfile Reference for full information. Variants are a way for port authors to provide options that may be invoked at install time. The most common actions for user-selected variants is to add or remove dependencies, configure arguments, and build arguments according to various options a port author wishes to provide.
Therefore, take care to never use hyphens in variant names. In the example variant declaration below, the configure argument --without-x is removed and a number of others are appended. Variants are used to specify actions that lie outside the core functions of an application or port, but there may be some cases where you wish to specify these non-core functions by default.
Patch files are files created with the Unix command diff that are applied using the command patch to modify text files to fix bugs or extend functionality. If you wish to contribute modifications or fixes to a Portfile, you should do so in the form of a patch. Follow the steps below to create Portfile patch files. Make a copy of the Portfile you wish to modify; both files must be in the same directory, though it may be any directory.
Put the name of the port in the patchfile, for example, Portfile-rrdtool. The Portfile patch below will change the version and checksums when applied. Now you may attach the patch file to a MacPorts Trac ticket for the port author to evaluate. Necessary or useful patches to application source code should generally be sent to the application developer rather than the port author so the modifications may be included in the next version of the application.
Generally speaking, you should create one patch file for each logical change that needs to be applied. An example filename would be patch- destdir-variable-fix. Locate the file you wish to patch in its original location within the unpacked source directory and make a duplicate of it. You should execute diff from the top-level directory of the unpacked source code, because during the patch phase MacPorts by default uses the patch argument -p0 , which does not strip prefixes with any leading slashes from file names found in the patch file as opposed to -p1 that strips one, etc , and any path not relative to the top-level directory of the unpacked source will fail during the patch phase.
If you find an existing source file patch you wish to use that contains leading path information diff was executed from a directory higher than the top-level source directory , you will need to use the patch phase keyword patch. Place the patch patch-destdir-variable-fix. MacPorts applies patch files automatically, but you may want to know how to apply patch files manually if you want to test patch files you have created or you wish to apply uncommitted Portfile patches.
Change to the directory containing the file to be patched. In this example, we'll apply a Portfile patch to the postfix port. Now apply the patch from your Downloads folder, or wherever you put it. The patchfile knows the name of the file to be patched. To create and test Portfiles that are not yet published in the MacPorts ports tree, you may create a local Portfile repository as shown. Replace the hypothetical user julesverne with your username in the example below.
Open sources. For example, to open it into TextEdit:. The file URL should always appear before the rsync URL so that local Portfiles can be tested that are duplicated in the MacPorts tree, because port will always operate on the first Portfile it encounters. Place the Portfiles you create inside a directory whose name matches the port, which should in turn be placed inside a directory that reflects the port's primary category the first category entry in the Portfile.
See other sections in the Guide for help writing Portfiles. If you've already written the Portfile elsewhere, you can instead copy the Portfile into this directory. If your Portfile needs to apply any patches to the port's source files, create a files directory and place the patchfiles in it, and reference the patchfiles in your Portfile, as explained in Creating Source Code Patches. After you create or update your Portfile, use portindex in the local repository's directory to create or update the index of the ports in your local repository. Once the local port is added to the PortIndex , it becomes available for searching or installation as with any other Portfile in the MacPorts tree:.
This section contains practical guidelines for creating Portfiles that install smoothly and provide consistency between ports. The following sections are on the TODO list. Portfiles may be thought of as a set of declarations rather than a piece of code. It is best to format the port file is if it were a table consisting of keys and values. In fact, the simplest of ports will only contain a small block of values. Nicely formatted compact tables will result in more values being visible at the same time. The two columns should be separated by spaces not tabs , so you should set your editor to use soft tabs, which are tabs emulated by spaces.
By default, the top line of all Portfiles should use a modeline that defines soft tabs for the vim and emacs editors as shown. The left column should consist of single words, and will be separated from the more complex right side by spaces in multiples of four. Variable assignments and variant declarations are exceptions, and may be considered a single word on the left side, with a single space between words.
When items require multiple lines with line continuation, they can be separated from the previous and next items with a blank line. Indent the additional lines to the same column that the right side begins on in the first line. Should a key item such as a phase or variant require braces, the opening brace should appear on the same line and the closing brace should be on its own line. The block formed by the braces is indented for visual clearance. Braces merely quoting strings, for example the description of variants, are placed on the same line without line breaks.
Frequently multiple items are necessary in the second column. Unless the second column items are few and short you should place each additional item on a new line and separate lines with a backslash. Indent the lines after the first line to make it clear the items are second column values and also to emphasize the unity of the block. At the end of this section the use of the obsolete PortGroup is suggested as an even shorter approach to the below described workflow.
The following steps have to be taken to ensure a smooth transition for a MacPorts user updating his local installation using sudo port upgrade :. Using the PortGroup obsolete makes the task described in the previous subsection much easier:. The PortGroup defines a number of reasonable defaults for a port that is only there to inform users that they should uninstall it and install something else instead. You might want to override some of the defaults though. If a port has to be removed from MacPorts one should consider the hints concerning replacing it by some alternative port given above.
It is recommended to wait one year before the port directory is actually removed from the MacPorts ports tree. Every time a maintainer commits changes to MacPorts' ports Git repository the buildbot will check whether a rebuild of the corresponding port s would be necessary. If the port s in question are distributable their binary archives will be kept for subsequent distribution for all versions of the Mac operating system for which build machines are available.
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See the list of builders to find out which platforms these currently are. If a build error occurred for a port its maintainer will be informed via an email so that problems which did not surface on the maintainer's machine will not go unnoticed. Port maintainers will find the waterfall and the builders views most useful since they give information about the build status and offer the possibility to build one's port s on specific builders.
List open files = lsof
Thus the buildbot helps to keep MacPorts consistent on various macOS versions, i. Currently only the default port variants will be built and kept. This chapter serves as a reference for the major elements of a Portfile: port phases, dependencies, StartupItems, variables, keywords, and Tcl extensions. MacPorts keywords are used to specify required or optional items within a Portfile, or to override default options used by MacPorts base for individual ports.
The global keywords listed below specify information for ports as a whole, whereas the keywords listed under a port phase specify information to be used during a particular installation phase. The first non-comment line of every Portfile; it should be followed by PortGroup inclusions if any and then a blank line. It defines which version of the Portfile interpreter will be used. There is currently only one version. The name of the port. To avoid special interpretation by shells and the like, names should contain only alphanumeric characters, underscores, dashes or dots.
Optional keyword default is 0 that is used to track port revisions. It should not be incremented for port revisions unless it would benefit users to upgrade an installed port, and cleared when the port is updated to a newer version. It should be used if a bug in the Portfile was found and all installations of this port have to be updated.
If the change only affects new installations, there is no need to increase it. An optional keyword default value is 0 that must be used when a port is updated to a version that is numerically less than the previous version, for example 1. Some Portfile authors have used large epoch values that look like a date, but there is no reason to do so. The epoch is simply an unsigned integer, and the only requirement is that it never be decreased. Remember that once set, it can never be removed because it takes precedence over version and revision. An epoch is not needed for most ports.
If a port's version numbers advance in normal dotted-decimal sequence, there is no reason to add an epoch. The category under which the ported software falls. The first category should be the same as the directory within which the Portfile is stored; secondary and tertiary categories may be selected. Most ports have only a single maintainer, but some ports have two or more co-maintainers. The maintainers keyword lists the maintainers' GitHub usernames or email addresses.
GitHub usernames start with an symbol. Email addresses are preferably listed in the obfuscated form below to hide them from spambots:. For addresses in other domains, e. Braces can be used to express that these refer to the same person, for example the GitHub username and an email.
The address nomaintainer designates a port that is not maintained by anybody and may be modified by any committer. Feel free to claim maintainership of a nomaintainer port if desired. The address openmaintainer designates a port that has a maintainer who allows minor changes to be committed without his or her prior approval.
Port maintainers who are not committers are encouraged to add openmaintainer to their ports. A list of the platforms on which the port has been tested. Required, but not interpreted in any way by the software at this time; it is purely informational for users. In general, it can just be set to darwin. See also os. The CPU architectures for which this port can be built.
If this option is not set, it is assumed that the port can build for all archs. If a port does not install any architecture-specific files, use the special value noarch. The proper format for license consists of the license name, followed by a hyphen and number if indicating a specific version. A space should be placed between licenses if there is more than one that applies.
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If an element in the license list is itself a list, it is interpreted as offering a choice of any one of the licenses in the sub-list. If the version specified in this case is also the earliest version, just leave out the version number entirely since it implies all versions. By default, it is assumed that ports may use libraries or headers from their dependencies and thus form a derivative work.
A dependency with an incompatible license thus prevents the port from being distributed in binary form. If a dependency with an incompatible license is not used in such a way that a derivative work is formed, or should not prevent binary distribution for any other reason, add its name to this list. Global variables are variables available to any Portfile. For a list of additional variables available to ports that are assigned to a MacPorts Portgroup, see portgroup 7. Full path to the Portfile of the port being executed. Portfile repositories are defined in the file sources.
The underlying operating system platform e. The version number of the host operating system e. OS X The major version number of the host operating system e. The MacPorts port installation process has a number of distinct phases that are described in detail in this section. The default scripts coded into MacPorts base performs the standard configure , make , and make install steps. For applications that do not conform to this standard, installation phases may be declared in a Portfile to augment or override the default behavior as described in the Portfile Development chapter. Execute commands to run test suites bundled with a port, available only for a fraction of ports.
This is an optional phase, run only if port test is executed, and always works with a build from source, not a binary. A failure is only for the user's information, and does not block a subsequent installation from the build. MacPorts uses the destroot phase to provide:. Port uninstalls - a port's files may be cleanly uninstalled because all files and directories are recorded during install.
In other words, port phase keywords are not located within port phase declarations, but rather they refer to port phases and set options for those phases, and they take effect whether or not phase declarations have been explicitly defined in a Portfile. Keyword list modifiers are keywords that end in -append, -delete or -replace.
Keywords that support list modifiers are identified under appropriate reference sections below. There is also a deprecated syntax for -replace which takes only one argument and behaves the same as -strsed. Preserve configure defaults set by a previously executed Portfile keyword or by MacPorts base. Ports in a PortGroup have default library dependencies set by MacPorts base.
When a variant requires more or fewer dependencies, distfiles, or patchfiles, when the variant is invoked you want to add or remove items to the appropriate keyword values list set in the global section of the Portfile. Use the appropriate keywords, for example:. But it should be noted that all keyword argument modifiers implicitly support keyword list modifiers. For example, the keyword configure.
You may also use mirror site lists predefined by MacPorts. Here the sourceforge, gnu, and freebsd mirrors are used. For ports that must fetch multiple download files from different locations, you must label the files with tags and match the tags to a distfiles keyword. The format is mirror:subdirectory:tag. The full distribution filename, including the extract suffix. Override it to store multiple ports' distfiles in the same directory such as multiple ports providing different versions of the same software , or if a stealth update has occurred. Sets the path to source directory relative to workpath.
It can be used if the extracted source directory has a different name then the distfile. Also used if the source to be built is in a subdirectory. Change the fetch type. This is only necessary if a bzr , cvs , git , hg , or svn checkout is being used. Values: standard bzr cvs git hg svn.
Bzr may be used as an alternative method of fetching distribution files using the keywords in this section. However, fetching via bzr may cause non-reproducible builds, so it is strongly discouraged. The bzr fetch. CVS may be used as an alternative method of fetching distribution files using the keywords in this section. However, fetching via CVS may cause non-reproducible builds, so it is strongly discouraged. The cvs fetch. Git may be used as an alternative method of fetching distribution files using the keywords in this section.
However, fetching via Git may cause non-reproducible builds, so it is strongly discouraged. The git fetch. Optional tag for fetching with git, this specifies the tag or other commit-ish that git should checkout. Mercurial may be used as an alternative method of fetching distribution files using the keywords in this section.
However, fetching via Mercurial may cause non-reproducible builds, so it is strongly discouraged. The hg fetch. Optional tag which should be fetched. Can be a Mercurial tag or a revision. To prevent non-reproducible builds use of tip as revision is discouraged.
Subversion may be used as an alternative method of fetching distribution files using the keywords in this section. However, fetching via Subversion may cause non-reproducible builds, so it is strongly discouraged. The svn fetch. Optional tag for fetching with Subversion, this specifies the peg revision to checkout; it corresponds to the REV syntax of the svn cli. Optional tag for fetching with Subversion, this specifies whether to check out the code into a working copy, or just export it without the working copy metadata.
An export is preferable because it takes half the disk space, but some software expects to be built in a working copy for example because it wants to record the revision number into itself somewhere. Checksum s of the distribution files. For ports with multiple distribution files, filenames must be included to associate files with their checksums. Each checksum entry should also indicate the file's size.
At least two checksum types typically rmd and sha should be used to ensure the integrity of the distfiles. This keyword is used to specify that the extract phase should be done as the root user. This keyword is for downloads that are compressed using the 7z algorithm. When invoked, it automatically sets:. This keyword is for downloads that are tarred and bzipped. This keyword is for downloads that are compressed using the lzma algorithm.
This keyword is for downloads that are uncompressed tar archives. This keyword is for downloads that are compressed using the xz tool. This keyword is used to specify if the directory worksrcdir is part of the distfile or if it should be created automatically and the distfiles should be extracted there instead. This is useful for distfiles with a flat structure which would pollute the worksrcdir with lots of files.
Only use if default extract behavior is not correct for your port. Main arguments to extract. Specify patch files to be applied for a port; list modifiers specify patchfiles to be added or removed from a previous patchfile declaration. Main arguments to patch. MacPorts base sets some important default configure options, so should use the -append version of most configure keywords so you don't overwrite them.
For example, MacPorts base sets default configure. Sets if the configure phase should be run. Can be used if the port has no. Set environment variables for configure; list modifiers add and delete items from a previous Portfile configure. If available, it is encouraged to use the predefined options like configure. Set optimization compiler flags; list modifiers add or delete items from a previous Portfile configure.
Select a compiler suite to fill the compiler environment variables. Manually set variables are not overwritten. Keep in mind that not all compiler suites might be available on your platform: gcc Default: llvm-gcc Values: gcc Main arguments to configure. There is a default universal variant made available to all ports by MacPorts base, so redefining universal keywords should only be done to make a given port compile if the default options fail to do so.
Only use it if you can't use build. Default: default the default Make on the current platform. Values: default bsd gnu xcode. Set environment variables for build; list modifiers add and delete items from a previous Portfile build. This keyword is for specifying whether or not it is safe for a port to use multiple CPUs or multiple cores in parallel during its build phase. The number of simultaneous jobs to run when parallel build is enabled.
The default value is based on the variable buildmakejobs in macports. Default: If buildmakejobs is 0, the number of CPU cores in the machine, or the number of GB of physical memory plus one, whichever is less. Main arguments to test. Set environment variables for test; list modifiers add and delete items from a previous Portfile test. A port must destroot properly or the port will not install correctly, upgrade, or uninstall. If not, you may need to set this variable, or even patch the application's Makefile.
If a port is not compliant with the standard, set it to yes. You can find the macports standard in MacPorts File Hierarchy or in the porthier 7 man page. If destroot. Use port contents portname to see the location for all files that were installed by a given port. The keywords used when specifying dependencies in a Portfile are related to port install phases, and they refer to what are called library, build, fetch, extract and run dependencies.
Though all of them install dependencies before a given port is installed, specifying dependencies with the correct keyword is important for proper port upgrade and uninstall behavior, or when running targets other than install. For example, you may not uninstall a port that is a library dependency for another installed port, though you may remove one that is a build dependency. Likewise, if you run the fetch target for a port, only the fetch dependencies will be installed first, so they should be all that is needed for that target. The list of dependencies to check before phases fetch , checksum , extract , patch , configure , build , destroot , install , and package.
Fetch dependencies are needed to download the distfiles for a port, and are not needed at all once the software is installed. The list of dependencies to check before phases extract , patch , configure , build , destroot , install , and package. Extract dependencies are needed to unpack a port's distfiles into the work directory, and are not needed at all once the software is installed.
The list of dependencies to check before phases configure , build , destroot , install , and package. Build dependencies are needed when software is being built, but not needed at all once it is installed. Library dependencies are needed both at build time for headers and libraries to link against and at run time. The list of dependencies to check before phase test. Test dependencies are only needed when the port enables testing i. The list of dependencies to check before phases destroot , install , and package. Run dependencies are needed when the software is run, but not to compile it.
There are two types of dependencies: port dependencies and file dependencies. Port dependencies can be satisfied by reference to a port the MacPorts registry is queried , or by reference to a file whether provided by a port or not. The most commonly-used type of dependencies in Portfiles are port dependencies, because dependencies should be provided by MacPorts ported software whenever possible, and usually only one port can provide the needed libraries and files. But when satisfying a dependency with vendor-supplied software is preferred for special reasons, or when it is possible for more than one port to satisfy a dependency, then file dependencies may be used.
File dependencies should only be used if one of the reasons listed above applies. There are three types: bin for programs, lib for libraries, and path for any installed file. See the examples below:. MacPorts variants are conditional modifications of port installation behavior during port installation. There are two types of variants: user-selected variants and platform variants. User-selected variants are options selected by a user when a port is installed; platform variants are selected automatically by MacPorts base according to the OS or hardware platform darwin, freebsd, linux, i, powerpc, etc.
User-selected variants are those that are defined so a user can invoke them to enable port options at install time. Variant names may contain only letters, numbers and underscore characters. MacStadium News. I cover how to: Download and install IceFloor. How to avoid locking yourself out of your server when you start the firewall with IceFloor. How to tell what ports are open for what services and the services you want to make sure you open. How to manually open ports for other services not listed in the main window.
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