Mac donald pastille anti vomitif


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Aigre -doux, -uce. Sourish ; Bitterish. Aigrelet, -ette. Sourish ; Somevirhat Aigremoine. Sourness ; Sharpness ; Bit- terness ; Acidity of the stomach. Aigu, -ue. Aiguille, -ee.

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Shaped like a needle. Ail6, -ee. Ailerons de la matrice. Three folds on the free margin of the broad ligaments. Magnet ; Loadstone. The action of rubbing or touching with a loadstone. Air comprime. Compressed air. Air confine. Confined air. Air fixe. Carbonic acid. Air inflammable. Air rarefie. Rarefied air. Air vici6. Nitrogen old term. Axilla ; Armpit. See Achaine. Akidopirastique, ou -peirastique. See Acine- Akiurgie. See Aciurgie. Aknemia ; Acnemia. Akology ; Aceology ; Aoo- logy- Alabastrite.

Variety of alabaster. Alar ; Alaris. Alanin, or -ne. Alantin ; Inulin. Name given to a mercurial Albation; Dealbation. The action of rendering white. Whitish ; Albescent. Albinism ; Albinismus. Albugineux, -euse. Albumin ; Albumen. That contains albumen. Albumineux, -euse. Albuminimeter ; Al- bumimeter ; Albuminometer. Albuminoid ; Albu- menoid. Alkalescence ; The state of a substance that becomes alkaline, or that is but feebly alkaline. Alcalescent, -ente. Alcalifiant, -ante ; Alcaligene.

That renders alkaline. Alcaliu, s. An alkaline substance ; Acalin, -ine. Alkalization, or -sation. The physiological or patho- logical state due to the over-employ- ment of alkalis. Old term for a basic salt. Alcalis6, -ee.

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Alkalized, or -sed. To alkalize, or -se. Alkaloid, s. Alkarsin ; Cacodyl. An alcoholic compound having a medicinal character. Alcoholization, or- sation. Applied to a liquid con- taining alcohol ; Alcoholic. An external alcoholic me- dicament. Pharmaceutical excipient composed of one part of alcohol and three parts of honey. Mixture containing three parts of honey and one part of an alcoholic tincture. Alcoometer ; Alcoholo- Alcoometrie.

Alcoometry ; Alcoholo- Alcomine. Relating to the aldehyds. Sal alembroth. Alexipharmac ; Alexipharmic ; Antidote. Alexiteric ; Alexeteric, s. Alezan, -aue. Draw-sheet ; Aleze. Algaroth ; Algeroth. Algid ; Cold ; Chilly. The algid state. Alcology ; Phycology. Relating to algospasm. Cessation of a pain ; Algo- Algues. Algae ; Sea-weed. Alible ; Nutritive.

Alienation ; Mental de- rangement ; Insanity. Aliene, -ee, s. Deranged ; Mad ; Insane. Alienist ; A specialist for Aliforme. Aliform ; Wing-shaped. Aliment; Nourishment ; Food. Alimenteux, -euse. Acting as a food ; Nutritious. Alimentivity Alipede. Precautions, etc. Lactation ; Suckling.

AUantoldien, -ienne. Hallelujah ; Wood-sorrel. Allesthesia ; AUochiria. AUoeotic ; Alleotic. Tube fixed on to a retort to lengthen it Chemistry. Lengthening ; Elonga- AUopathie. Relating to Allotropy ; AUotropisme. Gait ; Bearing. Relating to Allyl ; AUylic. Aloe ; Aloes. Aloetin ; Aloeretin. Impure aloetin.

Alphenic ; White barley Alphitedon. Fracture of the skull in which the bones are reduced to the consistency, as it were, of flour. Alphonsin ; Alfonsin. Alterant, -ante, s. Alte- rant ; Alterative, s. Altere, -ee.

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Changed ; Altered ; Ab- normal ; Thirsty. Alternant, -ante. Althaaa ; Althea ; Marsh- Altheine. Altruism ; The opposite to Aludel. Aluine ; Absinthe. Wormwood ; Ab- sinthium ; Absinthe. Alumen ; Alun. Alum ; Alumen. Alumineux, -euse. Aluminous ; Re- lating to alumina ; Composed of alumina. Natural hydro-sulphate of Aluminium. The addition of alum to a Alunation. The formation of alum. Alun6, -6e. Alveolus ; Socket. Alveole, -ee.

Alvin, -ine. Touch-wood ; German tinder. Amygdalate; Milk of almonds. Amandin ; Legumin. Amastie ; Amazie. Amastia ; Amazia. The instinct of procreation ; Amaurose. Amazia ; Amastia. Arabe ; A Greek name of an apparatus for reduction of dislocation of the shoulder. Ambient ; Surround- Ambidextre. Amblotic ; Abortifacient. Affected with amblyopia ; Amblyopic. Pertaining to amber. Ambresin, -ine. Composed of amber.

Having the smell of Ambrosie. Ambrosiaque ; Ambrosien, -enne. Am- Ambulacre. Ambulant, -ante. Ambulant; Ambula- Ambulation. Exercise of patients. Ambustion ; Burn ; Cau- Ame. Soul ; Mind. Amelide ; Ammelide. Amelioration ; Improve- Amenomanie. Amenorrhea, or -oea. Amentace, -ee. Amer, -ere, culj. Bitter, adj. Amiantace, -ee. Resembling amiantus. Amiantus ; Asbestos. Ameba ; Amoeba. Amibien, -ienne. Ameban ; Amoeban ; Amebic ; Amoebic.

Ameboid ; Amoeboid. Amidalique, Amidolique. Owing its properties to the presence of starch. Amid ; Amide. A compound of starch and Amidin. Amidin ; Soluble starch. See Amidalique. Starch ; Fecula. Amidonne, -6e. Containing starch ; Amiduline. Applied to the chemical union of starch with iodine, ammonia, Amilene ; Amylene.

Ammoniac, -aque. Ammoniacal, -ale. Anunoniaque, -ee. Ammoniate ; Ammoniure. Ammo- niemia ; Ammoniaamia. Containing ammonia ; Pertaining to ammonia. Amniorrhea, or -oea. Amniotique ; Amnique. Amniotic ; Am- Anmite. Amnitis ; Amniotitis. The amorphous state. Ampelotherapy ; Amphemerine. Amphibie, v. Amphibia, Amphibien, -enne. Amphi- Amphiblestroide. Softening of Amphibole. Having a double liga- Amphigame. Of both sexes. Amphismela ; A double- edged scalpel. Operating theatre ; Amphitrope.

Having teeth in both Amphore. Amplectif, -ive. Ampulla ; Blister. Having the form of an ampulla ; Trumpet-shaped. Amydold, -ee. Amyeloneuria ; Amye- Amyelotrophie. Amygdalieu, -enne. Tonsillar ; Tonsil- Amygdalin, -ine. Amygdaline ; Tonsil- Amygdaline. Tonsillar ; Amygdaline.

Amygdalitis ; Tonsillitis. Pertaining to the tonsils and to the tongue. Amylaceous, [sillotome. Pertaining to amylene. The employment of amylene as an anaesthetic. Amylo-dextrin ; Ery- Amyloide. Amylum ; Starch. A trembling caused by muscular contraction.

Ana ; aa. Anabatic ; Acmastic. Operation for entropion ; Anabrose. Anacarde ; Anacardier. Anacardium ; Cashew-nut tree. Anacatharsis ; Expec- Anacathartique. Anadrome, ,s. Anadrome, adj. Ansedoe, -6e. Wanting in sexual organs. Ansemie ; Anemic. Anaemia ; Anemia. Anaesthesia ; Anesthesia. Anaesthesia ; Anaerobie. Anagennesis ; Regenera- Anagyre. Anal, -ale.

Analepsis ; Analepsy. Analgesie ; Analgia. Analgesia ; Anal- Analgesine. Analgesin ; Antipyrin. Anallantoidien, -enna. Having no al- Analogie. Analyzer, or -ser. Anamnese ; Anamnesia. Anamnesia ; Anamnesis.

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Anamnie ; Ananmista. Anamnia ; Am- Anamorphose. Anaphonesis ; Vocal ex- Anaphrodisiaque. Reinstatement ; Regenera- Anapiratique. Anapeiratic ; Produced by repeated movements. Anaplasie ; Anaplastic. Anasarca; General dropsy. Tearing up or away ; Pull- ing up or out. Reduction of a com- pound to its first principles. Splanchnic inversion.

A change in the coordina- tion of parts. Hysterical eructation. Anatomism, Anatomiste. Not nitrogenous. Ancestral, -ale. Reed wind instruments. Anchilops ; Anchylops. Arthritis of the elbow. The birth and develop- ment of man. Androgyne, s. Androgynus, s. Andrum ; Elephantiasis of the scrotum. Androtomy ; Andrana- Andrum. Ass ; Donkey. Prostration ; De- pression ; Dejection. I m puberal. Anectasia ; Anectasis. Epidemic anemia of miners. Anemic ; Anaemic. Anemometer, [winds.

Instrument for ascer- taining the direction of the wind. Anencephalus, s. Anencephalia ; Anen- Anencephalien, -enne. Anencephalo- hemia. Anencephalo- trophia, or -phy. Anentere, -ee. Anerythroblepsy, or -sia ; Anerythropsia. Anesthesia ; Anaesthesia ; Insensibility. To put under the in- fluence of an anaesthetic. Anesthesimeter ; An- aesthesimeter. Anesthetic ; Anaesthetic, s. Angelica ; Lingwort. Angelique, adj. Angielcus ; Angeielcus. Angiitis ; Angeiitis. Angina ; Sore throat. Angina couennausa. Angina granuleusa, ou das orataurs. Clergyman's sore-throat. Angina da poitrine, ou du coeur.

Angina pectoris. Angina stridulause. Anginaux, -eusa. Pertaining to angina ; Anginoid. Angiogeny ; Angiogenesis. A state of congestion of the bloodvessels. Inflammation of the walls of the vessels ; Angiitis, [phangitis. Angioleucitis ; Lym- Angiolaucologia. Study of the lym- Angiologia. Angiolymphitis ; An- Angiome. That which accompanies vessels from one organ to another.

Vascular congestion. A morbid nodosity of a vessel. Inflammatory fever. Angiorrhagia ; Angeior- rhagia. Angiorrhea, or -oea. Calcareous incrustation of an artery. The joining or weld- ing of vessels amongst themselves. Angiotelectasia ; Te- langiectasia. A kind of anomaly of the Angiotomie. To dock a horse's tail. Feeling of constriction of the larynx, with a sensation of suffoca- tion Hysteria. Angor pectoris. Angulaire de I'omoplate. Levator anguli scapulae. Angul6, -ee. Anguleux, -euse. Angulous ; Angular. Angustia ; Constriction. Angusturin ; Brucin. Anhelation ; Dyspnoea.

To breathe with difficulty. Anheleux, -euse. Breathing with dif- ficulty ; Out of breath. Anhistous ; Structureless ; Anhydratation. The anhydrous state. Anide, adj. Anidous, adj. Anidien, -enne. Pertaining to anilin ; Anilic. Animal, s. Animal, -ale. Animal, adj. Animalization, or Animalit6. The whole of the attributes of animals. Anim6, s. Anim6, -ee. Animated ; Animate. Aniseed ; Anise ; Anisum. Anis6, -6e. Containing aniseed ; Per- taining to aniseed.

Anischuria ; Enuresis. A remedy containing aniseed. Ankylo- blepharon, [cheilia. Ankylo- ou Ancylochilie. Ankylo- Ankylo-ou Ancylocolpe. Ankylo- ou Ancylocore. Ankylo- ou Ancylodontie. Ankylo- dontia. Ankylo- ou Ancyloglosse. Ankylo- Ankylo- ou Ancyloglossotome.

Anky- loglossotome. Ankylo- ou Ancylomele. Ankylo- merism. Ankylo- ou Ancylopodie. Ankylo- ou Ancyloproctie. Ankylo- proctia. Ankylops ; Anchilops. Ankylotome ; Ancylotome. Stricture of theurethra. Ankyroide ; Anc3T0ide. Annuel, -elle. Annulaire, adj. Annulaire, s. Ring finger. Anodjni, -ine. Anodyne, adj. Anomal, -ale. Anomalous ; Abnormal ; Anomalie. Anomphalus 5 , -lous, Anonychie. Anoopsia ; Strabismus in which the eye is turned upward.

Ocular anaemia. Anopsia ; Anopsy ; Am- blyopia. Ano-pubien, -enne. Anorcbia ; Anorcbism. Anorganographie, Anorganologie. Tbe study of inorganic compounds- Anormal. Having no sense of smell. Anospbresia, -sis, or -sy ; Anospbrasia. Anotus, Auoxemie ; Anoxbeniie ; Anoxyemie. Anoxyeraia, or -seniia. Anoxyemie, or -semic. Anoxydic ; Wbich cannot be oxidized. Ansa ; Loop. Anserin, -ine. In form of a loop. Antacide, Antiacide. Antagonist, s. Autapbrodisiaque ; Antiapbrodisi- aque. Antarthritique ; Antiartbritique. Ant- Antecedent, -ente, adj. Ante- cedent.

Antemetic ; Antiemetic. Remedy fornigbtmare. Anterieur, -eure. Antbelitragien, -enne. Pertaining to tbe anthelix and to the tragus. Spigelia anthelmia. Antbemis ; Camomile. Anthrax ; Cbarbon. Antbracotypbus ; Plague ; Haamorrbagic typhus. Anthrax ; Carbuncle ; Ma- lignant pustule. Relating to man ; An- Antbropisme. That which relates to man ; Anthropism. Chemical analysis of tbe tissues, etc. Concretion of the human body. Antbropologiste, ou Antbropologue. A student of anthropology.

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Animal mag- netism. Treatise on tbe shape of human organs. The determination of the laws governing human actions. Nosology concern- ing man's morbid affections. Study of the human face. Antbroposoma- Anthroposopbie. Abstract study of man's actions. Therapeutics of Antbropotomie. Explanation of what is opposed to hydrotherapy. Antiaditis ; Tonsillitis. Antialcalin, -ine. Opposed to anaemia. Antiapbrodisiac ; Anaphrodisiac, adj. Antiarthritic ; Ant- arthritic, [of asphyxia.

Relating to the cure Antiastbmatique. Antiasthmatic; Ant- asthmatic, [ataxia. Antibrachial ; Per- taining to the forearm. Anticancereux, -euse ; Anticarcinoma- teux, -euse. Employed against cancer; Anticancerous. Anticardium ; The pit Anticarieux, -euse. Anticatarrhal, -ale. Employed against anthrax. Antichirotonus ; Anti- AnticMore. Sulphite of soda and other compounds employed to remove colour. An tichl orotic. Anticipant, -ante. Repercussion; Counter-blow; Anticoposcope. Pleximeter ; Anticopo- meter. Antidartreux, -euse. Employed against skin diseases. Contrary to a want of assimilation or to denutrition.

Antideperditeur, -trice ; Antideper- ditif. Said of food that diminishes the waste due to a want of assimila- tion. Antidigestif, -ive. Antidinic; Curing vertigo. Antiemetic ; Antemetic. Antephialtic ; Em- ployed against nightmare. Antigoutteux, -euse. Antipodagric ; Employed against gout. Antihemorrhoidal, -ale. Anthemor- Antihepatique.

Antihydropic ; Ant- hydropic. Antilaiteux, -euse. Antileptic ; Revulsive, Antilethargique. Employed against lethargy. Antiloemic ; Antilemic. Antimoniuretted Antimephitique. Antimonium ; Antimony. Antimonial, -ale. Medicines whose active principle is antimony. Antimonie, -ee. Antimonieux, -euse. Alloy of antimony. An hypothetical radicle of antimony.

Antimorveux, -euse. Employed against Antimydriatique. Employed against obe- sity. Antiorgastic ; Seda- tive ; Anaphrodisiac. Employed against the morbific influence of marshes. Antipathy ; Aversion. Antipediculaire ; Antipediculeux, -euse. Destructive of lice. Antipestilentiel, -elle. Antipesti- lential. Antipharmic ; Alexi- Antiphlogistique. The result of the action of antiphlogistics. Antiphthiriaque; Antiphthirique. Employed against phthisis. Antiphysetic ; Car- Antiphysique. Antiseptic Antipyique.

Antipyrin, Antipyretique. Antirhumatismal, -ale. Antiscrofuleux, -euse. Employed against scrofula. Antiseptie ; Antisepticie. Antisudoral, -ale. Antithermic ; Antipy- Antitoxique. Antitoxic ; Antidotal. Antitragien, -enne. Febrifuge especially for fevers of a regular type. Employed against small pox. Antivenimeux, -euse. Specially em- ployed against poisons. Antivermineux, -euse. Employed against worms. Antivirulent, -ente. Opposed to the action of virulent affections.

Antizymic ; Antizy- Antozone. Anuresis ; Anuria. Anuria ; Anuresis. Natural phosphate of lime. Apepsia, Aperception. Operation of the mind succeeding to impression and after- wards to perception. Aperistone, -ie. Wanting in persistency. Aperitif, -ive. A native of Bengal. Flowering time the beginning of the rains.

Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Colebrooke : "Catuci. A medicinal plant so called. It is described as digestive, bitter, pungent, dry, aperient, light and cold; and is recommended as a remedy for worms, asthma, bile, phlegm, and fever. Kutaki is a favorite remedy in bilious dyspepsia accompanied by fever, and is given daily in decoction, with liquorice, raisins, and Neem bark, half a tola 90 grains of each, water 32 tolas, boiled down to one-fourth.

In dyspepsia and dysentery it is combined with aromatics and is given in doses of ten to twenty grains. It is considered to be specially indicated in those cases in which the secretions are scanty and the bowels costive, and is often prescribed for children suffering from worms, whence the Marathi name Balakadu, "children's bitter. Chakradatta states that about two drachms of the powdered root given with sugar and warm water act as a gentle aperient. Mahometan writers give Katki or Kutki as an Indian synonym for black Hellebore, and unmistakably describe the latter plant and its medicinal properties.

This mistake has misled most European writers upon Indian drugs, but Ainslie, though he describes the drug in his article upon black Hellebore Mat. Royle III. Kurrooa possesses much bitterness and is employed medicinally by the natives. Irvine Mat. Moodin Sheriff was the first modern writer to clearly demonstrate that the bazar drug has no dangerous properties, but is a valuable tonic and antiperiodic. He also identified it with the P. Kurrooa of Royle, an identification which we are now able to confirm through the kindness of Mr. Duthie who has supplied us with a specimen of the plant collected in Kumaon.

As regards the medicinal properties of the drug, the accounts given by Sanskrit writers appear to be correct. Sheriff speaks favourably of it as a powerful bitter tonic and anti- periodic. Other medical men in India have expressed a similar opinion, and we can state from personal observation that it is used successfully as an antiperiodic in native practice; its slight laxative action is rather benefioial than otherwise. The dose as a tonic is from 10 to 20 grains, as an antiperiodic from 40 to 50 grains; it is best administered in combination with aromatics. Mucuna pruriens L.

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Colebrooke : "Cawach or Cowitch. Dolichos pruriens [L. I have never been able to learn that the natives of these parts of India, make any use of any part of this plant, except the hairs of the legumes which they do not use as a medicine, vermifuge but as an ingredient to help to poison wells. However its having been of late taken inwardly to destroy worms, proves that it is not that poison they take it for ; and it is more than likely that the other plants enjployed for ihe same base end, are fortunately much less dangerous than those who employ them imagine.

Indeed it is only the most ignorant, superstitious Poligar mountaineers who are known to attempt to poison water. Nor can it be done to any other than such as is confined in wells, or small tanks. Cowhage [ Carpopogon pruriens, Roxb. There is no doubt, Ainslie observes, but that it is simply by these mechanical means that the hairs act in worm cases. Neither the tincture nor decoction has the same effect.

If the pods are incautiously touched, they will cause an intolerable itching in the fingers. In the West Indies a decoction of the root is reckoned a powerful diuretic and cleanser of the kidneys, and is also made into an ointment for elephantiasis. The leaves are applied to ulcers, and the beans reckoned aphrodisiac. A vinous infusion of the pods 12 to a quart is said to be a certain remedy for the dropsy. Among these may be enumerated the M. The present species is a native of both Indies. The seed is said to absorb the poison of scorpions, and to remain on the sting until all is removed.

The Bhavaprakasa gives the following directions for their administration:—"Take of Mucuna seeds 82 tolas, boil them in 4 seers of cow's milk till the latter becomes thick. The seeds should now be decorticated and pounded, fried in ghi clarified butter , and made into a confection with double their weight of sugar. The mass should then be divided into balls and steeped in honey. Dose about a told grs. Dutt's Hindu Materia Medica, p. Similar properties are ascribed to the seeds Hab-el-kulai in Persian works, In the Concan a paushtik for spermatorrhoea is made by powdering the seeds of Gori Ruhili cultivated mucuna and Tribulus terrestris, the roots of Eriodendron anfractuosum and Asparagus adscendens, emblic myrobalans, Tinospora starch, and sugar candy, in equal proportions; of this powder 6 massa with 2 tolas of ghi are given in cow's milk twice a day.

The root is considered a nervine tonic, and is prescribed in' paralysis.. The Sanskrit names of the plant are Atmagupta, "having hidden properties," Kapikachchhu, "monkey's itch," and Vanari, "monkey plant. The use of the hairs of the Mucuna pod as a vermifuge to expel ascarides appears to have originated in the. West Indies, no mention of such an employment of them being found in native Indian works. They are now official in the Indian Pharmacopoeia, but are hardly ever prescribed in this country. Still there is a considerable demand for the article in the Indian market for exportation to Europe, and it is supposed to be required for the preparation of some patent vermifuge.

Croton tiglium L. Colebrooke : "Musali. A medical plant; probably Anthericum tuberosum , R[oxb. It grows to be a small tree, from fifteen to twenty feet in height, in the Company's Botanic garden at Calcutta, and in flower most part of the year. The tree has a disagreeable smell, the taste of the leaves is exceedingly nauseous and of long duration. Tamul Physicians say the seed of this tree purges efiectually and easily, removing all obstructions in the bowels ; and that it cures all venereal complaints, and bites of venomous animals.

Croton-oil plant [ Wight Icon. They are the size of a sloe, and are considered one of the most drastic purgatives known. Ten or twenty seeds have been known to kill a horse by producing the most violent diarrhoea. The usual way to get the oil is first to roast the seeds and then compress them.

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The colour is brownish, or brownish yellow, soluble in fixed and volatile oils. So powerful is its action that a single drop of the oil applied to the tongue is considered sufficient to insure the full results, especially in incipient apoplexy, paralysis of the throat, or difficulty of breathing arising from these causes, even should the patient be insensible at the time. But this must be of the pure oil, for it is often adulterated with olive, castor, or purging nut oil.

It is also employed in visceral obstruction, and occasionally in dropsy. The seeds mixed with honey and water are often applied to obstinate buboes in native practice. The expressed oil of the seed is a good remedy, externally applied, in rheumatism and indolent tumours. Rheede says that the leaves rubbed and soaked in water are also purgative, and when dried and powdered are a good application to snake-bites.

If the leaves are chewed they inflame the mouth and lips, and cause them to swell, leaving a burning sensation. The mode of preparing the oil in Ceylon is by pulverising the seeds; the powder is then put into bags, placed between sheets of iron, left to stand for a fortnight and then filtered.

Alcohol is then added to twice the weight of the residue. Much caution is requisite to avoid injury from the fumes which arise during the process. The wood, which is bitter-tasted, is gently emetic and powerfully sudorific. The seeds of the G. The natives mix them with water, administering two or three at a time, according to circumstances.

They are directed to be boiled in milk, the outer skin and embryo having been removed, to fit them for internal administration. The following prescription from the Bhavaprakasa may be taken as an example :—. Mahanaracha rasa. Then take a tola of husked Croton seeds, tie them in a piece of thin cloth, and boil them in the abovementioned decoction, till the latter is reduced to the consistence of a fluid extract. To this extract add a powder composed of eight parts of purified Croton seeds, three parts of ginger, and two of black pepper, mercury, and sulphur in quantity sufficient to make a pill mass ; rub them together for twelve hours, and make into two-grain pills.

After the operation of this medicine, rice should be given with curdled milk and sugar. The Indian names for Croton seeds lead us to suppose that they were first introduced into the country through Nepal. Under the name of Dand they were known to the Persians at a very early date, and were doubtless introduced into that country from China by the Caravan route through Central Asia. The Arabs retained the Persian name, but also called them Hab-el-khatai, " Cathay seeds," and Hab-el-salatin, "Sultans' seeds.

Ainslie states that Croton seeds were known to the Arabs under the name of Fill, but this is incorrect, as may be seen by referring to Ibn Sina, who describes Fil as an Indian drug having the properties of the Mandrake. Mahometan physicians describe the seeds as detergent, a purgative of phlegm, black bile, and adust humors; and recommend their use in dropsy, calculus, gout, and other diseases arising from cold humors.

On account of its irritant action upon the fauces, the seed, after having been boiled in milk, is to be crushed and enclosed in a raisin for administration. The author of the Makhzan remarks that the Hindus give small doses with fresh ginger tea, to children, as a remedy for whooping cough. The envelopes of the seed and plumule must always be rejected. Croton Tiglium was first described by Christoval Acosta in , afterwards by Rheede in , and Rumphius in In , Drs. White and Marshall brought the use of the seeds as a purgative to the notice of Europeans in India.

The former gentleman gives the following directions for their administration, which he received from a learned Parsee Vaidia of Surat:—"After having removed the shells from the seeds, tie the kernels in a small piece of cloth, like a bag; then put this into as much cowdung water as will cover the bag, and let it boil; secondly, when boiled, split the kernels in two and take a small leaf from them, which is said to be poisonous; and thirdly, pound the whole into a mass, to which add two parts of Katha catechu , and divide into pills of two grains each, two of which are sufficient for one dose.

Ainslie Mat. Indica, Vol. London Medical Depository for January In modern European medicine, croton oil, more or less diluted, is used externally as a counter-irritant, and causes an abundant pustular eruption. This effect is increased by the addition of an alkali to the liniment. The oil has also been used with success as an anthelmintic. In modern pharmacy its chief consumption is in the preparation of castor oil capsules. A native of the moist vallies up amongst the Circar mountains. Flowering time the rainy season. I have had many of the plants in my garden for several years ; they are very beautiful when in blossom, and have a long succession of flowers.

Achyranthes aspera L. Colebrooke : "Apang. Achyranthes aspera. Amaranthus spicatus zeylanicns, foliis obtusis. Burm, zeyl. A troublesome weed in every part of India, chiefly during the rainy and cold season, but in some measure all the year. The flowering-spikes rubbed with a little sugar are made into pills, and given internally to people bitten by mad dogs. The leaves taken fresh and rubbed to a pulp are considered a good remedy applied externally to the bites of scorpions. The ashes of the burnt plant mixed with conjee is a native remedy in dropsical cases.

Astringent and diuretic properties are assigned to this plant, and Dr Cornish states having employed it largely in dropsy with favourable results. The whole plant, when incinerated, yields a considerable quantity of potash. These ashes, in conjunction with infusion of ginger, are likewise esteemed in dropsical affections.

The flowering-spike has the repute in Oude and other parts of India of being a safeguard against scorpions, which it is believed to paralyse. It has also been used successfully as a local application in scorpion- stings and in snake-bites. Long in Journ. Madras Quart. This plant has given a name to the sacrificial offering called Apamarga Homa, which consisted of a handful of the flour of the seeds offered at daybreak, but which is not now, as far as we know, practiced in India.

According to the Black Yajurveda, Indra, having killed Vritra and other demons was overcome by Namuchi and made peace with him, promising never to kill him with any solid or liquid, neither by day or by night. But Indra collected some foam, which is neither solid nor liquid, and killed Namuchi in the morning between night and daybreak.

From the head of the demon sprung the herb Apamarga, with the assistance of which Indra was able to kill all demons. Hence this plant has the reputation of being a powerful talisman, and is now popularly supposed to act as a safeguard against scorpions and snakes by paralysing them. Compare with Scribonius Comp. The Sanskrit synonyms for the plant are Shikhari, Kini, or Kinihi, Khara-manjari "having a rough flower-stalk," Adhvashalya "roadside rice," Shaikharika, Pratyak-pushpi "having reverted flowers," and Mayuraka "crested.

The ashes are used by the Hindus in preparing caustic alkaline preparations. The diuretic properties of the plant are well known to the natives of India, and European physicians agree as to its value in dropsical affections; one ounce of the plant may be boiled in ten ounces of water for 15 minutes, and from 1 to 2 ounces of the decoction be given 3 times a day. Different parts of the plant are ingredients in many native prescriptions in combination with more active remedies.

In Western India the juice is applied to relieve toothache. The ashes with honey are given to relieve cough; the root in dosed of one tola is given at bedtime for night blindness, and rubbed into a paste with water it is used as an anjan eye salve in opacities of the cornea. The seeds are often used as a famine food in India, especially in Rajputana, where the plant is called Bharotha grass. Clerodendrum serratum L. Colebrooke : "Bamanaithi. Ovieda verticellata , R[oxb.

Found in Mysore by Dr. Buchanan, who sent the seeds to the botanic garden at Calcutta, where the plants blossom during the rains. Volkameria serrata, Linn. It is used by the natives in febrile and catarrhal affections. The leaves boiled with oil and butter are made into an ointment useful as an application in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter-milk are slightly aperient, and are occasionally administered in cases of dropsy. Dutt to be in use in Bengal as Bharangi, but the samples of that drug which we obtained from Calcutta and Cawnpore proved to be the stems and roots of C.

A light brown epidermis and thin bark cover the tough woody portion, which shows well-marked medullary rays and concentric rings. The drug contains much starch, it is faintly bitter, and has no peculiar odour. The young tops and light blue flowers are used as a vegetable by the natives. The root of C. The wood of the root is almost inert and tasteless ; the thin bark constitutes only one fifth of the weight of the dried root and contains a small quantity of the peculiar bitter principles, dissolved by ether, associated with an acrid resinous substance, and some fatty material.

Rubia cordifolia L. Colebrooke : "Madder. Rubia munjeet manjith , R[oxb. Fleming in Asiat.

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A native of Nepal, and other mountainous countries, north and north-east of Bengal. It grows in the Botanic garden at Calcutta, but requires uncommon care to keep it alive during the rainy season, and has never blossomed there. It differs from R. The roots, stems, and larger branches are used to dye red with. Bengal Madder[ Munjista, Roxb. The plant yields a red dye. The plant would appear to be chiefly produced in Kuchar, and the root is in great demand in the adjacent countries for dyeing coarse cloths and stuffs red: the Nepaulese barter it for rock-salt and borax.

The fibres of the root are exported to Europe, but have not been used medicinally except as above related. Its use as a dye-stuff is increasing yearly, and it is well worth the attention of dyers. It is cultivated in Assam, Nepaul, Bombay, and other parts of this country. The price in the London market ranges from 20 to 30 shillings the cwt. Chakradatta recommends madder rubbed with honey as an application to the brown spots of pityriasis persicolor.

The Sanskrit name is Manjishtha. Pliny 19, 17; 24, 56, who calls it Rubia and Erythrodanus. They do not, however, make any distinction between the species, but simply mention a wild and a cultivated variety. The Mahometans consider the drug to be deobstruent, and prescribe it in paralytic affections, jaundice, obstructions in the urinary passages and amenorrhoea. They mention the fruit as useful in hepatic obstruction, and a paste made from the roots with honey, as a good application to freckles and other discolorations of the skin.

The whole plant is reputed to be alexipharmic; it is also hung up in houses to avert the evil eye, and tied to the necks of animals with the same object. Compare with Dioscorides iii. Materia Indica II. In another notice of the article Op. Kinnier and Tavernier notice the abundance of madder in Persia and Makran. Alhagi maurorum Medik. Colebrooke : "Jawasa. Perhaps Hedysarum alhagi? Shooturk has from its being the common food of the camel. A native of Hindoostan, and generally found in a dry, rather barren, sandy soil. Its branches are used for the screens, called Tattees, employed during the hot dry winds, common in many parts of Southern Asia.

In the neighbourhood of Candahar and Mirut and the bank of the Chilchuk, manna is said to be procured from it. This substance exudes from the plant after spring-rains and is gathered by merely shaking it off. See Fothergill, p. In the Dooab, where it is common, it is for the most parts herbaceous and eaten down to the ground by cattle. Provinces, Upper Gangetic plain and Concan.

A Persian manna probably obtained from these plants is mentioned by Polyaenus, A. In the hot season when all the smaller plants die they send forth leaves and flowers. The generic name is derived from the Arabic Al-haju, which is pronounced by the Egyptian Arabs El-hagu. The plants are described in Sanskrit works as laxative, diuretic and expectorant, the thorny flower stalks and branches being the parts used.

An extract obtainable by evaporating a decoction of A. Maurorum is called Yavasakara; it has a bitter sweet taste, and is used as a demulcent in coughs. There is no mention in Sanskrit books of manna being obtained from the plant; indeed none is produced upon it in India. The Hindus use the fresh juice as a diuretic, generally in combination with laxatives and aromatics. Sarngadhara and Chakradatta. Mahometan works, under the names of Haj and Kbir-i-shutr, or camel thorn, a description of the plants will be found. They are considered to be aperient, actenuant and alexipharmic. A poultice, or fumigation with them is recommended to cure piles, the expressed juice is applied to opacities of the cornea, and is directed to be snuffed up the nose as a remedy for megrim.

An oil is prepared with the leaves as an external application in rheumatism ; the flowers are applied to remove piles. Ainslie notices A. Maurorum as one of the sources of manna. In the Bengal Dispensatory and Pharmacopoeia of India it is also noticed o n this account. Under the name of Taranjabin Mahometan writers describe Alhagi manna. Mir Muhammad Husain says that it is collected in Khorasan, Mawaruunahr, Kurjistan, and Hamadan by cutting the plants and shaking them in a cloth to separate the manna.

According to Aitchison the country round Rui-Khauf is famous for this manna. An inferior kind is made by dissolving what still adheres in water and evaporating it to a suitable consistence. In Bombay fine clean white samples of Taranjabin are sometimes obtainable during the season of import November to January , but unless very carefully preserved it soon spoils in the moist climate of the Western Coast, running together, and becoming a brown sticky mass.

The dried plant of A. Maurorum is always obtainable under the name of Jawasa, and the ripe fruit with manna adhering to it under the name of Taranjabin. In the Concan, the plant is smoked along with Black Datura, Tobacco, and Ajwan seeds as a remedy for asthma. Uraria picta Jacq. Colebrooke : "Chaculiya. On this account it is much used in Hindu medicine, but seldom alone. It is supposed to have alterative, tonic, and anti-catarrhal properties. The Sanskrit name, Prisniparni, signifies "spotted leaf. According to Susruta it was given to women in the seventh month of their pregnancy with milk to prevent abortion.

The Atharva-veda informs us that Prisniparni kills the monster Kanva, who wants to eat the germ. Another Sanskrit name is Atiguha, which signifies "great mystery. The medicinal properties attributed to this plant appear to be entirely fanciful. Colebrooke : "Sort of prickly nightshade. Solanum jacquini , Willd. A native of Bengal, where it is generally found on road sides near villages. It is in blossom, and produces ripe fruit most part of the year. In the West Indies the juice of the berry is used in cases of sore throat.

The fruits are much esteemed by the natives, who eat them in their curries. For this purpose the plant is cultivated in the Circars. This plant has diuretic properties assigned to it, and is largely employed in catarrhal and febrile diseases. The stems, flowers, and fruit are bitter and carminative, and are prescribed in cases of burning feet, attended with a vesicular watery eruption.

Trans, ii. Fumigations with the burning seeds are in great repute in the cure of toothache. It acts as a powerful sialagogue, and by these means probably relief is obtained. See Tribulus terrestris. In the Nighantas it is called Kantakara and Kantakini, "thorny", Nidigdhika, "clinging"; Vyaghri, "tigress"; and Dush-pradarshani, "which cannot be touched" ; and is described as aperient, pungent, bitter, digestive, diuretic, alterative, astringent and anthelmintic; useful in fever, cough, asthma, flatulence, costivenees and heart disease.

It is also thought to promote conception in the female. In practice the drug is generally combined with other expectorants, demulcents and aromatics. Boil together until reduced to the proper consistence. Lastly, add honey one seer, bamboo manna and long pepper in fine powder each half a seer. This electuary is given to allay cough. The drug is also used in decoction with long pepper and honey, and with salt and asafoetida for asthma.

Mahometan writers, under the Arabic name of Hadak, or the Persian Badinjan-i-barri wild egg plant , mention three kinds of Solanum, having somewhat similar properties. Their small kind, or Hejazi, appears to be the Solanum xanthocarpum, which they recommend in asthma, cough, dysuria, catarrhal fever, leprosy, costiveness and stone in the bladder. Under the name of Cundunghatrievayr, Ainslie ii. The stems, flowers, and fruit, according to Dr. Wilson Calcutta Med. Fumigations with the vapour of the burning seeds of this plant are in high repute in the cure of toothache; they are smoked in a chilam like tobacco and the natives have the idea that the smoke kills the insects which they suppose cause the pain.

The ancients used the seeds of Henbane in the same way. In the Concan 2 tolas of the juice of the fresh plant, with 2 tolas of Hemidesmus juice, are given in whey as a diuretic, and the root with chiretta and ginger is given in decoction as a febrifuge. Peters, of the Bombay Medical Service, informs us that in Bengal the plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. Indigofera tinctoria L. Colebrooke : "Indigo. Indigofera tinctoria.

Native place uncertain, for though now common in a wild state over most parts of India, yet is in genera! Common Indigo [ L Cultivated in Bengal and elsewhere. The root is also given in decoction in calculus; and the leaves rubbed up in water and applied to the abdomen are efficacious in promoting urine. Indigo itself is frequently applied to reduce swellings of the body. Lunan states that the negroes in Jamaica use a strong infusion of the root mixed with rum to destroy vermin in the hair.

Powdered indigo has been employed in epilepsy and erysipelas, and sprinkled on foul ulcers is said to cleanse them. The juice of the young branches mixed with honey is recommended for aphths of the mouth in children. The wild indigo, I. The root boiled in milk is used as a purgative, and a decoction of the stem is considered of great efficacy in mercurial salivation used as a gargle. The ancients were acquainted with the dye which we call indigo, under the name of Indicum.

Pliny knew that it was a preparation of a vegetable substance, but he was not acquainted with the plant, nor with the process of making the dye. Even at the close of the sixteenth century it was not known in England what plant produced it. The celebrated traveller Marco Polo thus mentions indigo as one of the products of Quilon, where the plant grows wild.

They procure it from a herbaceous plant, which is taken up by the root, and put into tubs of water, where it is suffered to remain till it rots, when they press out the juice. This, upon being exposed to the sun and evaporated, leaves a kind of paste, which is cut into small pieces of the form in which we see it brought to us. The account given above is a tolerably correct one of the rude process of its manufacture. It is one of the most profitable articles of culture in Hindostan, chiefly because labour and land are cheaper than anywhere else, and partly because the raising of the plant and its manufacture may be carried on even without the aid of a house.

It is chiefly cultivated in Bengal in the delta of the Ganges, on those districts lying between the Hooghly and the main stream of the former river. The ground is ploughed in October and November after the cessation of the rains, the seeds are sown in March and beginning of April. In July the plants are cut when in blossom, that being the time when there is the greatest abundance of dyeing matter. A fresh moist soil is the best, and about 12 lb. The plants are destroyed by the periodical inundations, and so last only for a single year. Before it is perfectly dry it is cut into small pieces an inch square; it is then packed up for sale.

Indigo, however, is one of the most precarious of Indian crops, being liable to be destroyed by insects, as well as inundation of the rivers. It is generally divided into two classes—viz. Madras indigo is not much inferior to that grown in Bengal. In the Jury Report of the Madras Exhibition it is said, in former years the usual mode of extracting indigo, as practised in Southern India, was from the dry leaf, a process which will be found minutely described in the pages of Heyne and Roxburgh. But this is now almost entirely superseded by the better system of the green leaf manufacture, which is followed in all the indigo-growing districts of this Presidency, save the province of South Arcot.

In the latter, the dry leaf process is still persevered in, but probably it is so only because of the distance to which the leaf has generally to be carried before it reaches the factory, and the consequent partial drying that takes place on the journey. Notwithstanding the importance of the traffic, the general manufacture is so indifferently conducted, or rather on so imperfect a system, that the value of the article produced is seriously diminished, and its currency injured as an article of trade. It is not that the quality of Madras indigo is inferior to the ordinary run of that of Bengal, but indigo is commonly manufactured over the Madras Presidency in driblets, one vat-owner often not producing enough to fill even a chest; and the consequence is, that no one can make a purchase of a quantity of indigo in the Madras market upon a sample, as is commonly done in Bengal,— that every parcel, and often the same chest, is of mixed qualities, and that the value of the dye becomes thereby disproportionately depreciated at home.

The best indigo comes from the district of Kishnagur, Jessore, Moorshedabad, and Tirhoot. Roxburgh stated that he extracted most beautiful light indigo from the I. Jury Rep. The following memorandum regarding the cultivation and manufacture of Indigo, as carried on in the Benares Province, is by Claud Hamilton Brown, Esq. Moist low soils are not suitable, but a great deal depends upon the subsoil, as the root grows vertically and to a great depth.

High stony lands are to be avoided, excepting the sites of old villages, where, from the presence of lime and animal or vegetable matter, very fine crops are frequently produced, particularly in a season when the rains are heavy. The plant generally shows itself in three or five days. As soon as it has got two or three inches high, with six or eight leaves, all weeds must be carefully removed, and a second weeding is again requisite by the time the plant is six or seven inches high.

While weeding, any place where the seed may have failed to germinate can be resown, by sprinkling the seed on the surface and dibbling it in where required. In about ninety days the plant begins to flower, and is then ready for cutting. Water must be immediately run in, sufficient just to cover the plant. If water is not at once let in, the plant will heat, and become spoiled. In dry cool weather, wind west, fifteen or sixteen hours are sometimes requisite.

If the plant is very ripe, the vat will be ready sooner than if the plant was young and unripe. It is most important to steep exactly the proper time, the quality and quantity of your produce being dependent on this being done. As a guide, the following signs may be mentioned, as showing that the vat is ready to be let off:—. As soon as the water begins to fall in the vat. When the bubbles that rise to the surface burst at once. On splashing up the surface water, it has an orange tinge mingling with the green.

The smell of the water is also a great guide; when ripe it should have a sweetish pungent odour, quite different from the raw smell of the unripe green-coloured water. The first of the water, when let off into the beating-vat, has a rich orange colour; and from the depth of this you can judge whether the vat has been a proper time steeping. The time usually necessary for beating is from one and three-quarters to three hours, but no positive rule can be given for this. The following are common modes of testing the state of the vat:—. If the fecula subside readily, and the water remains of Madeira colour, the beating may be stopped.

Three or four chatties of cold water or weak lime-water are then sprinkled over the surface to hasten the precipitation of the fecula, which does not completely take place in less than three or four hours. The water must then be drawn off from the surface through plug-holes made for the purpose in a stone slab inserted in the wall of the vat.

The fecula remaining at the bottom are removed to the boiler. Its being sufficiently boiled is known by its assuming a glossy appearance. When sufficiently boiled it is run off to the straining-table, where it remains twelve or fifteen hours draining ; it is then taken to the press and gradually pressed. This takes twelve hours. It is then ready to be taken out, cut, stamped, and laid in the drying- house to dry. A beegah contains 27, feet. Two hundred maunds of plant do very well if they yield one maund 82 lb. A vat of above size holds about maunds of plants. The plant sown, say, in June or July, is cut three months afterwards Now-dah and manufactured, and a second crop will be taken from it the following Khoontee August.

The second cutting gives the largest produce and best quality; the third Teersalee , but it is seldom allowed to grow three years. Mal i. Its importance as an article of trade is indicated by the Sanskrit synonym Banigbandhu, or "trader's friend. What Dioscorides calls Indicon, and Pliny and Vitruvius Indicum, was a blue pigment brought from India, and used both in painting and dyeing.

When powdered it gave a black powder, and when suspended in water it produced an agreeable mixture of blue and purple. It belonged to the costly dye-stuffs, and was often adulterated by the addition of earth. On this account, that which was soft without any roughness, and which resembled an inspissated juice, was esteemed the best. Both Pliny and Dioscorides speak of two kinds, one of which adheres to reeds, in the form of slime or scum thrown up by the sea ; the other was scraped from the sides of dye-pans in the form of a purple-coloured scum.

The ancients considered Indicum to be astringent, and used it for ulcers and inflammation, and to cleanse and heal wounds. See Beckmann's Hist. The early Arabian physicians identified Indicum with Nil, which they regarded as a kind of Indian woad. Ibn Sina calls it El-wasmah-el-Hindiya, and it was also called Idlim, which was an Arabian name for woad, as appears from a passage in Abu Hanifeh, who says :—"An Arab of the desert, of the Sarah tribe, told me that the Idlimeh is a plant that rises upon a stem about a cubit in height, and has branches at the extremities of which are.

Persian writers on Indian drugs state that before the time when the English began to cultivate indigo, the best kind made in India was known as Baiana, from the name of a place in the Shahjehanabad district where it was made, and the record of the cargoes of the ships which arrived in Holland from the East Indies in , show that the first had 13, lbs. The value of the indigo brought in these ships was at least , dollars. The indigo plant was not known in Europe until the close of the 16th century.

Both Hindus and Mahometans consider the plant to have attenuant properties ; they prescribe it in whooping-cough, affections of the lungs and kidneys, palpitation of the heart, enlargement of the spleen or liver and dropsy. Indigo applied to the navel of children is said to act upon the bowels; it is applied to the hypogastrium to promote the action of the bladder. The plant has a great repute in some parts of India as a prophylactic against hydrophobia, so much so as to be known among the natives as "the clog-bite shrub. People who have taken it inform us that beyond slight headache no disagreeable effect is produced, but that when a larger dose has been given it has proved purgative.

In addition to the internal administration, the expressed leaves are each day applied to the bitten part as a poultice. Rheede, speaking of indigo, says—"viribus veneni obsistit. It would appear that the wild indigo I. For Roth's observations on the use of Indigo in epilepsy and other spasmodic see Brit.

His account of its physiological effects is as follows :—"Shortly after taking it, the patient experiences a sense of constriction at the fauces, and the impression of a metallic taste on-the tongue. These are followed by nausea, and frequently by actual vomiting. The intensity of these symptoms varies in different cases. In some the vomiting is so violent as to preclude the further use of the remedy. The matter vomited presents no peculiarity except its blue colour. When the vomiting has subsided, diarrhoea usually occurs: the stools are more frequent, liquid, and of a blue or blackish colour.

The vomiting and diarrhoea are frequently accompanied by cardialgia and colic Occasionally these symptoms increase, and the use of the remedy is in consequence obliged to be omitted. The urine has a brown, dark, violet colour; but Dr. Roth never found the respiratory matter tinged with it. After the use of indigo for a few weeks, twitchings of the muscles sometimes were observed, as after the use of strychnia.

The seeds of these plants powdered and steeped in arrack or rum, yield a tincture which is used to destroy lice. Cultivation and production. The ground is ploughed in October and November after the cessation of the rains; the seeds are sown in March and the beginning of April. A fresh moist soil is the best, and about 12 lbs. The plants are destroiyed by the periodical inundations, and so last only for a single year. The cut plants are first steeped in water, when they ferment with evolution of CO 2 , the yellow liquor is then run off into another vat, when it is-vigorously mixed with air by manual labour or machinery.

By this means the leucindigo white indigo contained in the solution is oxidised and the indigo separates out as a blue scum winch finally settles to the bottom. The supernatant liquor is then run off, and the indigo is boiled with water for several hours, pressed and dried. Watts' Dict. Before it is perfectly dry it is cut into cubes three inches square; it is then packed up for sale.

Indigo is one of the most precarious of Indian crops, being liable to be destroyed by insects as well as inundation of the rivers. It is generally divided into two classes, viz. Psoralea corylifolia L. Colebrooke : "Somraj. Conyza or Serratula anthelmintica [L. Moench A native of various parts of India, and commonly found in the vicinity of villages during the rainy and cold seasons. Lequminosae [ The natives prescribe them as stomachic and deobstruent, and also use them in cases of leprosy and other cutaneous affections.

Native works on Materia Mediea describe the seeds as hot and dry, or according to some, cold and dry, lenitive, fragrant, stimulant and aphrodisiac. They are recommended in leprosy, and other chronic skin diseases which depend upon a vitiated state of the Wood, and are given internally and applied externally as a plaster; whence the synonym Kushtanasmi; they are also said to be useful in febrile bilious affections and as an anthelmintic and diuretic. Ainslie mentions their use in Southern India as a stomachic and deobstruent, and says that they are prescribed in lepra and other inveterate cutaneous affections.

Some years ago the seeds were extensively tried in Bombay by Dr. Bhao Daji and others, as a remedy in leprosy, with some success. Kanny Loll Dey strongly recommends the oleo-resinous extract of the seeds diluted with simple unguents as an application in leucoderma. He says—" After application for some days the white patches appear to become red or vascular; sometimes a slightly painful sensation is felt.

Occasionally some small vesicles or pimples appear, and if these be allowed to remain undisturbed, they dry up, leaving a dark spot of pigmentary matter, which forms as it were a nucleus. From this point, as well as from the margin of the patch, pigmentary matters gradually develops which ultimately coalesce with each other, and thus the whole patch disappears. It is also remarkable that the appearance of fresh patches is arrested by its application. In the hands of other observers, however only negative results have been obtained by this mode of treatment.

Several species of Psoralia have been used medicinally in America, and have been found to act as gentle, stimulating, and tonic nervines. For an interesting account of the American Psoralias, see Maisch. Moench [Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus II. Vernonia anthelmintica. Conyza anthelmintica.

Is a pretty large, erect, annual species, common on high dry uncultivated ground, and rubbish. It flowers during the cold season. Conyza anthelmintica, Linn. An infusion of them is given on the Malabar coast for coughs and in cases of flatulency. Reduced to powder and mixed with lime-juice, they are used to expel pediculi from the hair. The seeds are about an eighth of an inch in length, of a dark-brown colour, covered with whitish scattered hairs, cylindrical, tapering towards the base, marked with about ten paler longitudinal ridges, and crowned with a circle of brown scales, and are nauseous and bitter to the taste.

Dr Gibson regards them as a valuable tonic and stomachic, in doses of 20 to 25 grains. It has long been highly esteemed as one of the principal remedies for leucoderma and psoriasis, and is also used as an anthelmintic in combination with other remedies. For administration in skin diseases Chakradatta directs the drug to be powdered along with an equal quantity of black sesamum, and a drachm of the powder to be taken in the morning with tepid, water, after perspiration has been induced by exercise or exposure to the sun.

The diet should consist of milk and rice. In leucoderma, a decoction of emblic myrobalans and catechu is given in addition to the powdered Vakuchi. Vakuchi is described in the Nighantas as sweet, pungent, digestive, bitter, alterative, astringent, cold, cardiacal, dry, antiphlegmatic ; a remedy for cough, fever, and intestinal worms. The author of the Makhzan-el-Adwiya describes Kali-jiri, and states that it is given internally to remove phlegm and worms from the intestines, and that a poultice or plaster of it is used to disperse cold tumors. He concludes by saying that the drug is not often prescribed internally, as it is thought to have injurious effects, but that it is much used as a cattle medicine.

Indian Mahometan druggists sell this drug as a substitute for Atrilal Anthriscus Cerefolium. Ainslie says: "The small dark-coloured and extremely bitter seeds of this annual plant are considered as powerfully anthelmintic, and are also an ingredient of a compound powder prescribed in snake-bites.

The dose of the seed in powder, when administered in worm cases, is one pagoda weight twice daily. Materia Ind. Ross speaks favourably of an infusion of the powdered seeds in doses of from 10 to 30 grains as a good and certain anthelmintic for ascarides. In Travaucore the bruised seeds, ground up in a paste with lime juice, are largely employed as a means of destroying pediculi. Gibson, as the result of personal experience, regards them as a valuable tonic and stomachic in doses of 20 to 25 grains ; diuretic properties are also assigned to them. Pharmacopoeia of India, p.

In the Concan the following formula is in vogue as an antiperiodic—Vernonia seeds, Chiretta, Picrorhiza root, Dikamali, Rocksalt and Ginger, p. Powder, and give 6 massas in cold water in which a red hot tile has been quenched, every morning. Piper longum L. The plant I have found wild amongst bushes, on the banks of water courses, up towards the Circar mountains. It flowers and bears fruit during the wet and cold seasons. It is in Bengal only, so far as I have been able to learn, that this plant is cultivated for its pepper.

When the pepper ament is full grown, it is gathered and daily exposed to the sun, till perfectly dry ; after which it is packed up in bags for sale. The roots, and thickest parts of the creeping stems, when cut into small pieces and dried, form a considerable article of commerce all over India, under the name of Pippula moola; for which purpose it is particularly cultivated in many of the vallies amongst the Circar mountains.

This sort is more esteemed, and bears a higher price than that of Bengal, where by far the largest proportion is cultivated. It is, as well as the pepper, chiefly employed medicinally, and the consumption of both these drugs is very great. Cultivation in Bengal. The long pepper is not propagated by seed, but by suckers, and requires to be cultivated upon a rich, high, and dry soil. The suckers are transplanted soon after the setting in of the periodical rains, and the pepper which is preserved merely by drying it in the sun , is gathered in the month of January, after which the stalk, and branches of the plant wither, and the roots only remain alive.

A bigha of land the third of an English acre will yield in the first year about a maund eighty-four pounds of the pepper, in the second year four maunds ; and in the third, six ; after which, as the plant becomes annually less and less productive, the roots are grubbed up, dried, and sold ; and fresh roots, or young shoots are set in their stead, the earth requiring merely a slight covering of manure. The plants are never to be watered, and at the commencement of the hot season the roots are to be carefully covered with straw to preserve them against the heat of the sun.

The plants should be set about five feet asunder. Large quantities of this pepper and also of the roots are exported to Bombay, and Surat ; where both are in great demand, the first for culinary, the latter for medicinal purposes. The ryots in this part of the country, usually sow radishes, or barley, or plant brinjals Solanum melongena , in the intermediate space between the plants.

Long Pepper [ Piper longum, Linn. Banks of watercourses. Circar mountains. South Concans. The stems are annual, but the roots live several years; and when cultivated, usually yield three or four crops, after which they seem to become exhausted, and require to be renewed by fresh planting. The berries of this species of Pepper are lodged in a pulpy matter like those of P. They are at first green, becoming red when ripe. Being hotter when unripe, they are then gathered and dried in the sun, when they change to a dark-grey colour. The spikes are imported entire. The taste of the berries is pungent, though rather faint.

On the Coromandel coast the natives prescribe the berries in an infusion mixed with honey for catarrhal affections. The roots are given by natives in palsy, tetanus, and apoplexy. These and the thickest parts of the stem are cut into small pieces and dried, and much used for medical purposes. The berries have nearly the same chemical composition and properties as the black Pepper, and are said to contain pipeline.

The root is in great repute among the natives. It is called Peepla-mool in the Taleef-Shereef, where it is described as bitter, stomachic, and producing digestion. In Travancore an infusion of the root is prescribed after parturition, with the view of causing expulsion of the placenta. See P. In Sanskrit works on medicine, P. It is considered to be digestive, sweet, cold, bitter, emollient and light; useful in rheumatism, asthma, cough, abdominal enlargements, fever, leprosy, gonorrhoea, piles and spleen.

Old long pepper is to be preferred to fresh. A mixture of long pepper, long pepper root, black pepper and ginger in equal parts, is prescribed by several writers as a useful combination for catarrh and hoarseness. As an alterative tonic, long pepper is recommended for use in a peculiar manner. An infusion of three long peppers is to be taken with honey on the first day, then for ten successive days the dose is to be increased by three peppers every day, so that on the tenth day the patient will take thirty at one dose.

Then the dose is to be gradually reduced by three daily, and finally the medicine is to be omitted. Thus administered, it is said to act as a valuable alterative tonic in. Long pepper and black pepper enter into the composition of several irritating snuffs; boiled with ginger, mustard oil, buttermilk and curds, it forms a liniment used in sciatica and paralysis. In the Concan the roasted aments are beaten up with honey and given in rheumatism ; they are also given powdered with black pepper and rock salt two parts of long pepper, three of black, and one of salt in half tola doses for colic.

Mahometan writers,, under the name of Darfilfil, describe long pepper as a resolvent of cold humours; they say it removes obstructions of the liver and spleen, and promotes digestion by its tonic properties; moreover, it is aphrodisiacal, diuretic, and emmenagogue. Both it and the root Filfil-muiyeh are much prescribed in palsy, gout, lumbago, and other diseases of a similar nature. A collyrium of long pepper is recommended for night blindness; made into a liniment it is applied to the bites of venomous reptiles. We learn from Roxburgh Flora Indica, I. The roots and thickest part of the creeping stems, when cut into small pieces and dried, form a considerable article of commerce all over India, under the name of Pippali-mula, for which purpose it is particularly cultivated in many of the valleys amongst the Sircar mountains; This sort is.

It, as well as the pepper, is chiefly employed medicinally, and the consumption of both these drugs is very great. Pippali-mula, with the synonyms Kana-mula, Katu-granthi, Ushana-granthika, Chataka and Chataka-shira, is described in the Nighantas as having the same properties as long pepper.

Chaba, which produces the long pepper of European commerce, is the Chavi, Chavika and Chavya of Sanskrit writers. It is considered to have the same properties as P. The aments are sold in the bazars as Mothi pippali, and the stem as Chab, Chai or Chavak. The oblong black pepper of Theophrastus H. Dioscorides, in his article upon the three peppers, mentions a pepper root, and says it resembles Costus, has a hot taste, and causes salivation when chewed.

This drug was probably Galangal, which is known as Pan-ki-jar or root of Piper Betle, because its odour somewhat resembles that of Betle leaves. Colebrooke : "Another sort. Piper retrofractum Vahl - Javapfeffer - Java Longpepper. Corom, pl. Tomex sebifera. Res, iv, p. Laurus involucrata. Sebifera glutinosa. Cochin, Ch. This grows to be a middle sized tree, is a native of the mountainous parts of the Circars.

Flowers in June, when the rains begin.

Abrus precatorius L. Colebrooke : "Retti. Abrus precatorius. Gunja, Krishnala, its red seed Ruttika. This is one of the most common plants in every part of India. The seeds are often used as weights by jewellers. The root is employed as a substitute for liquorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra, being like it, sweet and mucilaginous.

Of this pretty plant, I have met with three varietes in India, viz. With rose-coloured flowers, red seed, and black eye. With lark-coloured flowers, black seed, and white eye. Wild or country Liquorice [ Glycine abrus, Linn. The leaves yield even, more than the root. The latter, mixed up with honey, are applied externally to swellings; and, pulverised and chewed with sugar, are given to mitigate coughs. Lunan states that in Jamaica they are used instead of tea In Java the roots are considered demulcent, and the mucilage is there combined with some bitter. The seeds are occasionally employed externally in ophthalmia.

The white seeds are considered to act as a poison, producing vomiting and convulsions, but not unusually fatal to man. The smallest fatal dose is one tolah. The expressed juice of the leaves is said to be useful in aphthae.