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Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. Featured on Meta. Congratulations to our 29 oldest beta sites - They're now no longer beta! Unicorn Meta Zoo 7: Interview with Nicolas. Experiment: closing and reopening happens at 3 votes for the next 30 days…. Related Hot Network Questions. Where file is the name of the file containing the program you want to send to. How FreeBSD relates to other computer operating systems. All supported FreeBSD versions provide an option in the installer to install These values are used with chmod 1 , but with letters instead of numbers.

In general, these modes were selected by studying the operation of many Passing NULL to promises or execpromises specifies to not change the current value. Walnut Creek CDROM not only supported the idea of distributing These values are used with chmod 1 , but with letters instead of numbers. Some of these chapters may recommend that you do some prior reading, and this is noted in the synopsis at the beginning of each chapter. The current online version of the Handbook represents the cumulative effort of many hundreds of contributors over the past 10 years. The following are some of the significant changes since the two volume third edition was published in The third edition was the culmination of over two years of work by the dedicated members of the FreeBSD Documentation Project.

The printed edition grew to such a size that it was necessary to publish as two separate volumes. The following are the major changes in this new edition:. A glossary has been added to provide a central location for the definitions of technical terms used throughout the book. A number of aesthetic improvements have been made to the tables and figures throughout the book. The second edition was the culmination of over two years of work by the dedicated members of the FreeBSD Documentation Project. The following were the major changes in this edition:. A standard synopsis has been added to each chapter to give a quick summary of what information the chapter contains, and what the reader is expected to know.

We feel that the topics are easier to comprehend when presented as a single chapter. A section on RAID both hardware and software has also been added.

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This book is split into five logically distinct sections. It is expected that the reader will follow these chapters in sequence, possibly skipping chapters covering familiar topics. This section, and all subsequent sections, can be read out of order. Each chapter begins with a succinct synopsis that describes what the chapter covers and what the reader is expected to already know.

This is meant to allow the casual reader to skip around to find chapters of interest. The third section, System Administration , covers administration topics. The fourth section, Network Communication , covers networking and server topics. The fifth section contains appendices of reference information. Introduces FreeBSD to a new user. Covers the basic commands and functionality of the FreeBSD operating system.

Lists some common desktop applications, such as web browsers and productivity suites, and describes how to install them on FreeBSD. Shows how to set up sound and video playback support for your system. Also describes some sample audio and video applications. Explains why you might need to configure a new kernel and provides detailed instructions for configuring, building, and installing a custom kernel. Describes managing printers on FreeBSD, including information about banner pages, printer accounting, and initial setup.

Describes the parameters available for system administrators to tune a FreeBSD system for optimum performance. Also describes the various configuration files used in FreeBSD and where to find them. Describes the FreeBSD boot process and explains how to control this process with configuration options. Describes the jails framework, and the improvements of jails over the traditional chroot support of FreeBSD. Describes what FreeBSD Event Auditing is, how it can be installed, configured, and how audit trails can be inspected or monitored.

Describes how to manage storage media and filesystems with FreeBSD. This includes physical disks, RAID arrays, optical and tape media, memory-backed disks, and network filesystems. Covers both system and application level localization. Describes which users would benefit from tracking a development system and outlines that process.

Covers the methods users may take to update their system to the latest security release. Dynamic tracing can help locate performance issues, by performing real time system analysis. Explains how to connect terminals and modems to your FreeBSD system for both dial in and dial out connections. Explains the different components of an email server and dives into simple configuration topics for the most popular mail server software: sendmail.

Provides detailed instructions and example configuration files to set up your FreeBSD machine as a network filesystem server, domain name server, network information system server, or time synchronization server. Explains the philosophy behind software-based firewalls and provides detailed information about the configuration of the different firewalls available for FreeBSD.

This book touches on many different subjects that may leave you hungry for a more detailed explanation. The bibliography lists many excellent books that are referenced in the text. To provide a consistent and easy to read text, several conventions are followed throughout the book. An italic font is used for filenames, URLs, emphasized text, and the first usage of technical terms. A monospaced font is used for error messages, commands, environment variables, names of ports, hostnames, user names, group names, device names, variables, and code fragments.

How to Fix “Operation not permitted” Error in Terminal for Mac OS

A bold font is used for applications, commands, and keys. Keys are shown in bold to stand out from other text. Meaning the user should type the Ctrl , Alt , and Del keys at the same time. Would mean that the user is expected to type the Ctrl and X keys simultaneously and then to type the Ctrl and S keys simultaneously.

Examples starting with indicate a command that must be invoked as the superuser in FreeBSD. You can login as root to type the command, or login as your normal account and use su 1 to gain superuser privileges. Unless otherwise noted, C-shell syntax is used for setting environment variables and other shell commands.

The book you are holding represents the efforts of many hundreds of people around the world. Whether they sent in fixes for typos, or submitted complete chapters, all the contributions have been useful. Several companies have supported the development of this document by paying authors to work on it full-time, paying for publication, etc. Wind River Systems then paid several additional authors to make a number of improvements to the print-output infrastructure and to add additional chapters to the text.

This work culminated in the publication of the second printed edition in November ISBN This part of the handbook is for users and administrators who are new to FreeBSD. These chapters:. The number of forward references in the text have been kept to a minimum so that this section can be read from front to back with minimal page flipping.

Thank you for your interest in FreeBSD! It provides all the features that are nowadays taken for granted, such as preemptive multitasking, memory protection, virtual memory, multi-user facilities, SMP support, all the Open Source development tools for different languages and frameworks, and desktop features centered around X Window System, KDE, or GNOME.

Its particular strengths are:. Liberal Open Source license , which grants you rights to freely modify and extend its source code and incorporate it in both Open Source projects and closed products without imposing restrictions typical to copyleft licenses, as well as avoiding potential license incompatibility problems. Extensive security features , from the Mandatory Access Control framework to Capsicum capability and sandbox mechanisms.

Rerouting VPN Traffic from Cisco AnyConnect

Over 30 thousand prebuilt packages for all supported architectures, and the Ports Collection which makes it easy to build your own, customized ones. Documentation - in addition to Handbook and books from different authors that cover topics ranging from system administration to kernel internals, there are also the man 1 pages, not only for userspace daemons, utilities, and configuration files, but also for kernel driver APIs section 9 and individual drivers section 4.

Simple and consistent repository structure and build system - FreeBSD uses a single repository for all of its components, both kernel and userspace. This, along with an unified and easy to customize build system and a well thought out development process makes it easy to integrate FreeBSD with build infrastructure for your own product. Binary compatibility with Linux, which makes it possible to run many Linux binaries without the need for virtualisation. FreeBSD is based on the 4. FreeBSD offers performance and reliability on par with other Open Source and commercial offerings, combined with cutting-edge features not available anywhere else.

The applications to which FreeBSD can be put are truly limited only by your own imagination. FreeBSD also benefits significantly from literally thousands of high quality applications developed by research centers and universities around the world, often available at little to no cost. Because the source code for FreeBSD itself is generally available, the system can also be customized to an almost unheard of degree for special applications or projects, and in ways not generally possible with operating systems from most major commercial vendors.

Here is just a sampling of some of the applications in which people are currently using FreeBSD:. Email servers. Education: Are you a student of computer science or a related engineering field? There is no better way of learning about operating systems, computer architecture and networking than the hands on, under the hood experience that FreeBSD can provide. A number of freely available CAD, mathematical and graphic design packages also make it highly useful to those whose primary interest in a computer is to get other work done!

Research: With source code for the entire system available, FreeBSD is an excellent platform for research in operating systems as well as other branches of computer science. FreeBSD's freely available nature also makes it possible for remote groups to collaborate on ideas or shared development without having to worry about special licensing agreements or limitations on what may be discussed in open forums. Networking: Need a new router?

A name server DNS? A firewall to keep people out of your internal network? FreeBSD can easily turn that unused PC sitting in the corner into an advanced router with sophisticated packet-filtering capabilities. Embedded: FreeBSD makes an excellent platform to build embedded systems upon.

Desktop: FreeBSD makes a fine choice for an inexpensive desktop solution using the freely available X11 server. Support for many other languages are also available through the ports and packages collection. FreeBSD's advanced features, proven security, predictable release cycle, and permissive license have led to its use as a platform for building many commercial and open source appliances, devices, and products. Apache - The Apache Software Foundation runs most of its public facing infrastructure, including possibly one of the largest SVN repositories in the world with over 1.

Citrix - The NetScaler line of security appliances provide layer load balancing, content caching, application firewall, secure VPN, and mobile cloud network access, along with the power of a FreeBSD shell. The extremely liberal FreeBSD license allowed Isilon to integrate their intellectual property throughout the kernel and focus on building their product instead of an operating system. Juniper is one of many vendors that showcases the symbiotic relationship between the project and vendors of commercial products.

In addition, NetApp has contributed back many features, including the new BSD licensed hypervisor, bhyve. Netflix has made extensive contributions to the codebase and works to maintain a zero delta from mainline FreeBSD. Sandvine - Sandvine uses FreeBSD as the basis of their high performance real-time network processing platforms that make up their intelligent network policy control products. Sophos - The Sophos Email Appliance product is based on a hardened FreeBSD and scans inbound mail for spam and viruses, while also monitoring outbound mail for malware as well as the accidental loss of sensitive information.

The BSD license allows them to integrate their own intellectual property with the system while returning a great deal of interesting development to the community. The Weather Channel - The IntelliStar appliance that is installed at each local cable provider's headend and is responsible for injecting local weather forecasts into the cable TV network's programming runs FreeBSD. Verisign - Verisign is responsible for operating the. They rely on a number of different network operating systems including FreeBSD to ensure there is no common point of failure in their infrastructure.

Voxer switched from a Solaris derivative to FreeBSD because of its superior documentation, larger and more active community, and more developer friendly environment. They then proceeded to scale past 2. Wheel Systems - The FUDO security appliance allows enterprises to monitor, control, record, and audit contractors and administrators who work on their systems. Includes an extensible plugin system based on FreeBSD jails.

OPNsense includes most of the features available in expensive commercial firewalls, and more in many cases. It brings the rich feature set of commercial offerings with the benefits of open and verifiable sources. Designed to ease the transition of Windows and OS X users. Designed to replace the proprietary firmware on off-the-shelf routers. Wikipedia also maintains a list of products based on FreeBSD. The following section provides some background information on the project, including a brief history, project goals, and the development model of the project.

The original goal was to produce an intermediate snapshot of BSD in order to fix a number of problems with it that the patchkit mechanism just was not capable of solving. The early working title for the project was BSD 0. Those plans came to a rude halt when Bill Jolitz suddenly decided to withdraw his sanction from the project without any clear indication of what would be done instead.

The trio thought that the goal remained worthwhile, even without Bill's support, and so they adopted the name "FreeBSD" coined by David Greenman.

L2TP VPN in FreeBSD

The initial objectives were set after consulting with the system's current users and, once it became clear that the project was on the road to perhaps even becoming a reality, Jordan contacted Walnut Creek CDROM with an eye toward improving FreeBSD's distribution channels for those many unfortunates without easy access to the Internet. Without Walnut Creek CDROM's almost unprecedented degree of faith in what was, at the time, a completely unknown project, it is quite unlikely that FreeBSD would have gotten as far, as fast, as it has today.

This was based on the 4. It was a fairly reasonable success for a first offering, and they followed it with the highly successful FreeBSD 1. Around this time, some rather unexpected storm clouds formed on the horizon as Novell and U. A condition of that settlement was U. FreeBSD then set about the arduous task of literally re-inventing itself from a completely new and rather incomplete set of 4.

Since that time, FreeBSD has made a series of releases each time improving the stability, speed, and feature set of the previous version. For now, long-term development projects continue to take place in the X are continually made available from the snapshot server as work progresses. Many of us have a significant investment in the code and project and would certainly not mind a little financial compensation now and then, but we are definitely not prepared to insist on it. This is, I believe, one of the most fundamental goals of Free Software and one that we enthusiastically support.

Due to the additional complexities that can evolve in the commercial use of GPL software we do, however, prefer software submitted under the more relaxed BSD copyright when it is a reasonable option to do so. The development of FreeBSD is a very open and flexible process, being literally built from the contributions of thousands of people around the world, as can be seen from our list of contributors. FreeBSD's development infrastructure allow these thousands of contributors to collaborate over the Internet.

We are constantly on the lookout for new developers and ideas, and those interested in becoming more closely involved with the project need simply contact us at the FreeBSD technical discussions mailing list.

Introduction

The switch was deemed necessary, as the technical limitations imposed by CVS were becoming obvious due to the rapid expansion of the source tree and the amount of history already stored. Anyone can submit a bug to the Bug Database. Before submitting a bug report, the FreeBSD mailing lists, IRC channels, or forums can be used to help verify that an issue is actually a bug.

The primary task of the core team is to make sure the project, as a whole, is in good shape and is heading in the right directions. Inviting dedicated and responsible developers to join our group of committers is one of the functions of the core team, as is the recruitment of new core team members as others move on. The current core team was elected from a pool of committer candidates in July Elections are held every 2 years. Last, but definitely not least, the largest group of developers are the users themselves who provide feedback and bug fixes to us on an almost constant basis.

The primary way of keeping in touch with FreeBSD's more non-centralized development is to subscribe to the FreeBSD technical discussions mailing list where such things are discussed. In summary, our development model is organized as a loose set of concentric circles. The centralized model is designed for the convenience of the users of FreeBSD, who are provided with an easy way of tracking one central code base, not to keep potential contributors out! Our desire is to present a stable operating system with a large set of coherent application programs that the users can easily install and use — this model works very well in accomplishing that.

All we ask of those who would join us as FreeBSD developers is some of the same dedication its current people have to its continued success! In addition to the base distributions, FreeBSD offers a ported software collection with thousands of commonly sought-after programs. At the time of this writing, there were over 24, ports! The list of ports ranges from http servers, to games, languages, editors, and almost everything in between.

To compile a port, you simply change to the directory of the program you wish to install, type make install , and let the system do the rest. The full original distribution for each port you build is retrieved dynamically so you need only enough disk space to build the ports you want. There are several different ways of getting FreeBSD to run, depending on the environment. Those are:. Virtual Machine images, to download and import on a virtual environment of choice.

These files must be uncompressed and written as a raw image to an SD card, from which the board will then boot. Installation images, to install FreeBSD on a hard drive for the usual desktop, laptop, or server systems. The rest of this chapter describes the fourth case, explaining how to install FreeBSD using the text-based installation program named bsdinstall.

Where applicable, instructions specific to other platforms will be listed. There may be minor differences between the installer and what is shown here, so use this chapter as a general guide rather than as a set of literal instructions. The questions bsdinstall will ask, what they mean, and how to answer them. Read the supported hardware list that shipped with the version of FreeBSD to be installed and verify that the system's hardware is supported.

The hardware requirements to install FreeBSD vary by architecture. The FreeBSD download page also has recommendations for choosing the correct image for different architectures. However, such small amounts of memory and disk space are really only suitable for custom applications like embedded appliances. General-purpose desktop systems need more resources. This is the most common desktop and laptop processor type, used in most modern systems. Other manufacturers sometimes call it x Almost all icompatible processors with a floating point unit are supported.

Refer to pae 4 for details. SMP is supported on all systems with more than 1 processor. A dedicated disk is required as it is not possible to share a disk with another operating system at this time. Once it has been determined that the system meets the minimum hardware requirements for installing FreeBSD, the installation file should be downloaded and the installation media prepared. Before doing this, check that the system is ready for an installation by verifying the items in this checklist:. Before installing any operating system, always backup all important data first.

Do not store the backup on the system being installed. Instead, save the data to a removable disk such as a USB drive, another system on the network, or an online backup service. Test the backup before starting the installation to make sure it contains all of the needed files. Once the installer formats the system's disk, all data stored on that disk will be lost. If FreeBSD will be the only operating system installed, this step can be skipped.

In the i and amd64 architectures, disks can be divided into multiple partitions using one of two partitioning schemes. For historical reasons, FreeBSD calls these primary partition slices. One of these primary partitions can be made into an extended partition containing multiple logical partitions. Common GPT implementations allow up to partitions per disk, eliminating the need for logical partitions.

To create a partition without deleting existing data, use a partition resizing tool to shrink an existing partition and create a new partition using the freed space. GParted is also included with many other Linux live CD distributions. When used properly, disk shrinking utilities can safely create space for creating a new partition. Since the possibility of selecting the wrong partition exists, always backup any important data and verify the integrity of the backup before modifying disk partitions.

Disk partitions containing different operating systems make it possible to install multiple operating systems on one computer. Some FreeBSD installation methods require a network connection in order to download the installation files. After any installation, the installer will offer to setup the system's network interfaces. If the network has a DHCP server, it can be used to provide automatic network configuration. If DHCP is not available, the following network information for the system must be obtained from the local network administrator or Internet service provider:.

IP addresses of the network's DNS servers. On very rare occasions those bugs affect the installation process. Check the errata before installing to make sure that there are no problems that might affect the installation. The FreeBSD installer is not an application that can be run from within another operating system. FreeBSD installation files are available at www.

Each installation file's name includes the release version of FreeBSD, the architecture, and the type of file. For example, to install FreeBSD Installation files are available in several formats. The formats vary depending on computer architecture and media type. The names of these files include the string uefi. A working Internet connection is required during installation as the installer will download the files it needs to complete the FreeBSD installation. This file should be burned to a CD using a CD burning application.

It should be burned to a CD using a CD burning application. It also contains a set of popular binary packages for installing a window manager and some applications so that a complete system can be installed from media without requiring a connection to the Internet. It should be burned to a USB stick using the instructions below. A working internet connection is required during installation.

SHA from the same directory. Calculate a checksum for the image file. FreeBSD provides sha 1 for this, used as sha imagefilename. Other operating systems have similar programs. The checksums must match exactly. If the checksums do not match, the image file is corrupt and must be downloaded again. It cannot be copied to the target device as a file. This section describes two of these utilities. Before proceeding, back up any important data on the USB stick.

This procedure will erase the existing data on the stick. Be very careful that the correct device is used as this command will destroy the existing data on the specified target device. To burn the image using dd , insert the USB stick and determine its device name. Then, specify the name of the downloaded installation file and the device name for the USB stick.

How to determine the proper MTU size with ICMP pings | monline

If this command fails, verify that the USB stick is not mounted and that the device name is for the disk, not a partition. Some operating systems might require this command to be run with sudo 8. To force all writes to complete, use sync 8. Be sure to give the correct drive letter as the existing data on the specified drive will be overwritten and destroyed. Double-click the Win32DiskImager icon to start the program.

Verify that the drive letter shown under Device is the drive with the memory stick. Click the folder icon and select the image to be written to the memory stick. Verify that everything is correct, and that no folders on the memory stick are open in other windows. By default, the installation will not make any changes to the disk s before the following message:. The install can be exited at any time prior to this warning.

If there is a concern that something is incorrectly configured, just turn the computer off before this point and no changes will be made to the system's disks. How to configure the system to boot from the inserted media depends upon the architecture. These architectures provide a BIOS menu for selecting the boot device. Most systems also provide a key for selecting the boot device during startup without having to enter the BIOS. Typically, the key is either F10 , F11 , F12 , or Escape. If the computer loads the existing operating system instead of the FreeBSD installer, then either:.

The installation media was not inserted early enough in the boot process. Leave the media inserted and try restarting the computer.

How to Enable the Root user on Mac OS X 10.12 Sierra and earlier

The BIOS changes were incorrect or not saved. Double-check that the right boot device is selected as the first boot device. This system is too old to support booting from the chosen media. On most machines, holding C on the keyboard during boot will boot from the CD. To do this, reboot the system and wait until the boot message appears. The message depends on the model, but should look something like this:. Once the system boots from the installation media, a menu similar to the following will be displayed:.

To pause the boot timer in order to review the selections, press Space. To select an option, press its highlighted number, character, or key. The following options are available. If the boot timer has been paused, press 1 , upper- or lower-case B , or Enter. Press 2 or the upper- or lower-case S to enter this mode. Escape to loader prompt : This will boot the system into a repair prompt that contains a limited number of low-level commands. Press 3 or Esc to boot into this prompt. The boot options menu is divided into two sections.

The first section can be used to either return to the main boot menu or to reset any toggled options back to their defaults. The next section is used to toggle the available options to On or Off by pressing the option's highlighted number or character.

The system will always boot using the settings for these options until they are modified. Several options can be toggled using this menu:. Once the problem is fixed, set it back to Off. Verbose : Toggle this option to On to see more detailed messages during the boot process. This can be useful when troubleshooting a piece of hardware. After making the needed selections, press 1 or Backspace to return to the main boot menu, then press Enter to continue booting into FreeBSD.

A series of boot messages will appear as FreeBSD carries out its hardware device probes and loads the installation program. The rest of this chapter describes how to use this installer. Otherwise, use the right or left arrows or the colorized letter to select the desired menu item. To review the boot messages, including the hardware device probe, press the upper- or lower-case S and then Enter to access a shell. When finished, type exit to return to the welcome menu.

This section shows the order of the bsdinstall menus and the type of information that will be asked before the system is installed. Use the arrow keys to highlight a menu option, then Space to select or deselect that menu item. When finished, press Enter to save the selection and move onto the next screen. When configuring the keyboard layout, use the up and down arrows to select the keymap that most closely represents the mapping of the keyboard attached to the system. Press Enter to save the selection. Pressing Esc will exit this menu and use the default keymap. In FreeBSD The full selection of keymaps is shown, with the default preselected.

In addition, when selecting a different keymap, a dialog is displayed that allows the user to try the keymap and ensure it is correct before proceeding. The next bsdinstall menu is used to set the hostname for the newly installed system. Type in a hostname that is unique for the network. It should be a fully-qualified hostname, such as machine3. Next, bsdinstall will prompt to select optional components to install. Deciding which components to install will depend largely on the intended use of the system and the amount of disk space available.

The FreeBSD kernel and userland, collectively known as the base system , are always installed. Depending on the architecture, some of these components may not appear:. The installation program does not check for adequate disk space. Select this option only if sufficient hard disk space is available. Although not required for the majority of applications, it may be required to build device drivers, kernel modules, or some applications from the Ports Collection.

It is also used for developing FreeBSD itself. Since the installation files must be retrieved over a network connection, this menu indicates that the network interface must be first configured. Once the interface is configured, select a mirror site that is located in the same region of the world as the computer on which FreeBSD is being installed. Files can be retrieved more quickly when the mirror is close to the target computer, reducing installation time. Installation will then continue as if the installation files were located on the local installation media.

The next menu is used to determine the method for allocating disk space. The options available in the menu depend upon the version of FreeBSD being installed. Guided partitioning automatically sets up the disk partitions, Manual partitioning allows advanced users to create customized partitions from menu options, and Shell opens a shell prompt where advanced users can create customized partitions using command-line utilities like gpart 8 , fdisk 8 , and bsdlabel 8.

This section describes what to consider when laying out the disk partitions. It then demonstrates how to use the different partitioning methods. When laying out file systems, remember that hard drives transfer data faster from the outer tracks to the inner. This partition is used to hold mailboxes, log files, and printer spools. Mailboxes and log files can grow to unexpected sizes depending on the number of users and how long log files are kept. At least 2 gigabytes of space is recommended for this partition. When selecting partition sizes, keep the space requirements in mind.

Running out of space in one partition while barely using another can be a hassle. As a rule of thumb, the swap partition should be about double the size of physical memory RAM. Systems with minimal RAM may perform better with more swap. Configuring too little swap can lead to inefficiencies in the VM page scanning code and might create issues later if more memory is added. On larger systems with multiple SCSI disks or multiple IDE disks operating on different controllers, it is recommended that swap be configured on each drive, up to four drives.

The swap partitions should be approximately the same size. The kernel can handle arbitrary sizes but internal data structures scale to 4 times the largest swap partition. Keeping the swap partitions near the same size will allow the kernel to optimally stripe swap space across disks. Large swap sizes are fine, even if swap is not used much. It might be easier to recover from a runaway program before being forced to reboot. By properly partitioning a system, fragmentation introduced in the smaller write heavy partitions will not bleed over into the mostly read partitions.

When this method is selected, a menu will display the available disk s. If multiple disks are connected, choose the one where FreeBSD is to be installed. Once the disk is selected, the next menu prompts to install to either the entire disk or to create a partition using free space. After the partition layout has been created, review it to ensure it meets the needs of the installation. Partitions can also be manually created, modified, or deleted. GPT is usually the most appropriate choice for amd64 computers. The other partition schemes are generally used for uncommon or older computers.

The Tab key is used to move the cursor between fields. Refer to gpart 8 for descriptions of the available GPT partition types. The Size may be entered with common abbreviations: K for kilobytes, M for megabytes, or G for gigabytes. Proper sector alignment provides the best performance, and making partition sizes even multiples of 4K bytes helps to ensure alignment on drives with either byte or 4K-byte sectors.

Generally, using partition sizes that are even multiples of 1M or 1G is the easiest way to make sure every partition starts at an even multiple of 4K. There is one exception: the freebsd-boot partition should be no larger than K due to current boot code limitations. A Mountpoint is needed if the partition will contain a file system. The Label is a name by which the partition will be known. Drive names or numbers can change if the drive is connected to a different controller or port, but the partition label does not change.

Use a unique label on every partition to avoid conflicts from identical labels. A few letters from the computer's name, use, or location can be added to the label. For instance, use labroot or rootfslab for the UFS root partition on the computer named lab.